Камбоджи

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Камбоджи — кшатрийское древнеиндийское племя, часто упоминаемое в санскритской литературе и литературе пали. Самое ранее упоминание названия «камбоджа» можно встретить в одной из Брахман — «Вамша-брахмане», датируемой учёными VII веком до н. э. Племя и царство камбоджей упоминается в «Махабхарате» и в Ведангах.

Царство камбоджей располагалось на северо-востоке современного Афганистана и граничило с Гандхарой.[1] Одни учёные причисляют древних камбоджей к индоариям[2][3][4][5][6] или допускают такую возможность,[7] тогда как другие говорят о наличии у них как иранских, так и индийских черт.[8][9][10][11] По мнению большинства современных учёных, камбоджи были древнеми иранцами[12][13][14] и имели общее происхождение с индоскифами. Учёные также описывают камбоджей как царский клан саков и скифов.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Во время индоскифского вторжения в Индию, произошедшего в докушанский период, камбоджи начали мигрировать на юг: в Гуджарат, Южную Индию и на Шри-Ланку, а позднее — также и в Бенгалию и Камбоджу. Миграции продолжались в течение почти семи столетий: со II века до н. э. по V век. Потомки камбоджей правили мелкими княжествами в средневековой Индии.

Потомками древних камбоджей принято считать племя камбодж в Пенджабе[5][22][23][24][25][26] и некоторые племена в афганской провинции Нуристан.[27][28]

Примечания[править | править вики-текст]

  1. Encyclopaedia Indica, «The Kambojas: Land and its Identification», First Edition, 1998 New Delhi, page 528
  2. Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 231-32, B. C. Law; Indological Studies, 1950, p 7, B. C. Law
  3. Mishra 1987, p. 91
  4. Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, 1874, p 356, (ed) John Muir; see also: Journal, 1848, p 15, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society of Bengal; The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1962, p 264, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe
  5. 1 2 Kāmboja and Śāstrī 1981
  6. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 132—135, H. C. Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukerjee, University of Calcutta.
  7. D. D. Kosambi Commemoration Volume, 1977, p 287, Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Lallanji Gopal, Jai Prakash Singh, Nisar Ahmed, Dipak Malik; B.C. Law Volume, 1945, p 601, Indian Research Institute, Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar, Indian Research Institute.
  8. See: Vedic Index of names & subjects by Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138.
  9. See more Refs: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.)
  10. Marrī 1989, p. 2
  11. India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311; Cf: D. D. Kosambi Commemoration Volume, 1977, p 287, Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Lallanji Gopal, Jai Prakash Singh, Nisar Ahmed, Dipak Malik etc.
  12. Das Volk Der Kamboja bei Yaska, First Series of Avesta, Pahlavi and Ancient Persian Studies in honour of the late Shams-ul-ulama Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana, Strassberg & Leipzig, 1904, pp 213 ff, Ernst Kuhn; The Language of the Kambojas, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society 1911, pp 801-02; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256; Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, D. C. Sircar; Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, fn 81, p 114, Michael Witzel; The Afghans (Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979; History of lndia, Vol. I, R. Thapar 1961/1997: p 276; A History of Zoroastrianism, 1975, p 129, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet
  13. Frye 1984, p. 154
  14. Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 34, Moti Chandra — India; The Achaemenids in India, 1950, p 27, Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya; Indo-iranica, 1946, p iii, Iran Society (Calcutta, India)
  15. Ref: La vieille route de l’Inde de Bactres à Taxila, p 271, Alfred A. Foucher.
  16. In Huet 2008 «Kamboja» is more precisely defined as «Clan royal Kamboja des Śakās» (Kamboja, a royal clan of the Sakas)
  17. See ref: A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aśoka: the first Greek inscription discovered in Afghanistan, 1964, p 17, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini — Aśoka, India, Published by Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente, 1964
  18. Thion 1993, p. 51
  19. Walker and Tapp 2001
  20. Cf: Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute — India; cf: Notes on Indo-Scythian chronology, Journal of Indian History, xii, 21; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S. Konow; Cf: History of Indian Administration, p 94, B. N. Puri.
  21. IMPORTANT NOTE: Indian Epic Mahabharata (See: Mahabharata 5.19.21-23; See also: The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, F. E. Pargiter, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) states that Kamboja ruler Sudakshin Kamboj had marshaled and lead an Akshuni army of wrathful warriors which besides the Kambojas, also comprised a strong contingent from the Sakas (or Scythians). This fact clearly proves that the Sakas, in general, were subservient to the Kamboja ruler Sudakshina Kamboj and that Sudakshina’s clan was ruling over the Sakas. Thus from epic evidence also, the Kambojas were indeed a royal or ruling Scythian clan and the Scythians had formed an indispensable part of the Kamboja army. Furthermore, the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions also connect yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuia (Kamboja) and his daughter Aiyasi Kamuia (Kamboja), chief queen of the Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, to the imperial house ruling in Taxila (See: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions, Edition 1991, p 36, Sten Konow)
  22. An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Supplementary Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119—120, 458, William Crooke; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniment; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Die Holztempel Des Oberen Kulutales in Ihren Historischen, Religiosen Und Kunstgeschichtlichen …, 1974, p 26, Gabriele Jettmar; Report on the settlement of the land revenue of the Sultánpur district. [With] Accompaniments, 1873, p 88, A F. Millett; Paradise of Gods, 1966, p 331, Qamarud Din Ahmed; Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, p 165, Chandra Chakraverty
  23. Bhatia 1984, p. 50
  24. Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, D. Bose; Bhartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, J. C. Vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial Lecturers, p 21, Gauhati University; «India and the World», 1964, p 154, Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana, A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, M. R. Singh; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, M. Choudhury; Early History of India, 1942, p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, S. K. Chatterjee; Cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, 187, Rājendralāla Mitra; Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta
  25. Jindal 1992, p. 149
  26. Marrī 1989
  27. See refs: Mountstuart Elphinstone, «An account of the kingdom of Caubol», fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, fn, H. C. Raychaudhury, B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids and India, 1974, p 13, S. Chattopadhyaya.
  28. Cf: There is an apparent trace of their (Kambojas') name in the Caumogees of Kaferistan, who may have retreated to the mountains before the advance of the Turk tribes (H. H. Wilson). See fn 374:15: [1] .