Трофей Хэрмона

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Трофей Хэрмона — это набор из трёх международных трофеев, который ежегодно присуждается выдающимся авиаторам в мире, женщинам-лётчикам, и воздухоплавателям (аэростат или дирижабль). Четвертый трофей, «Национальный Трофей», был награждён с 1926 по 1938 год к числу наиболее выдающихся лётчиков в каждой из двадцати одной страны и вновь с 19461948 в честь американцев, которые способствовали авиации. Эта награда была учреждена в 1926 году Клиффордом Б. Хармоном — богатым лётчиком.

Награды присуждаются Клифордом Хэрмоном как:

«американские награды за наиболее выдающиеся международные достижения в области искусства и/или науки воздухоплавания за предыдущий год с искусством полёта получения первого почёта».[1]

Вторая мировая война и смерть Хэрмона[править | править исходный текст]

До Второй мировой войны, награда была в ведении Международной Лиги Авиаторы (Ligue Internationale Des Aviateurs), организации, основанной Хэрмоном в качестве «агента по вопросам мира и национальной безопасности».[2] Лига перестала существовать во время Войны и смерти Хэрмона 25 июня 1945 года в Каннах, Франция[3], что поставило награды в беспорядок. После Хэрмона осталось $ 55 000 его имущества, финансирование награждений продолжено "бессрочно", но родственники Хэрмона оспорили завещание.[4] В конце концов, целевой фонд в размере $ 48 431 был создан в 1948 году.

Список лауреатов премии[править | править исходный текст]

Ниже приведен неполный список, составленный из нескольких источников. Воздухоплаватели, соотечественники и астронавты не перечисляются в середине расположения. NAA и Смитсоновский институт Национальный музей авиации и космонавтики работали, чтобы собрать полный список, который должен был быть опубликован в связи с сотой годовщиной NAA в 2005 году, однако этот проект не был завершён, и кажется, что первичные документы в течение награждений были уничтожены.[5]

Год Aviator[6] Aviatrix Aeronaut[7] National (until 1949) see below for Astronaut since 1967
1926 Lt. Col. Georges Pelletier d'Oisy, France[8] No Award Presented General Umberto Nobile, Italy Shirley J. Short, USA; Cdr. Hirosi Abe, Japan; Maj. Mario de Bernardi, Italy[9]
1927 Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, USA Lady Mary Bailey, UK Commander Charles E. Rosendahl, USA
1928 Col. Arturo Ferrarin, Italy Lady Mary Bailey, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany Carl Eielson;[10] Charles Kingsford-Smith Australia[11]
1929 Maj. Dieudonne Costes, France[12] Miss Winifred Spooner, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany Maj. James H. Doolittle, USA;[13] Hugh Grosvenor, Australia[11]
1930 Maj. Dieudonne Costes, France Miss Amy Johnson Mollison, UK Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible); Ward T. Van Orman, USA (spherical balloon) Lt. Cdr. Frank Hawks; Lt. Carlos de Haya González de Ubieta es:Carlos de Haya Gonzalez, Spain; Charles Kingsford-Smith, Australia[11]
1931 Air Marshal Italo Balbo, Italy[14] Mrs. Maryse Bastié, France[14] Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible); Prof. Auguste Piccard, Switzerland (spherical balloon)[14] Clyde Pangborn, USA; Hugh Herndon, USA; Ruth Nichols, USA; Air Commodore; Charles Kingsford-Smith Australia; Bert Hinkler, UK; Amy Johnson, UK; Peggy Salaman, UK; Captain von Gronau, Germany; Marga von Etzdorf, Germany[14]
1932 Wolfgang von Gronau; Germany[15] Mrs. Amelia Earhart Putnam, USA[15] Prof. Auguste Piccard, Switzerland (spherical balloon); Capt. Ernst A. Lehmann, (dirigible)[15] Roscoe Turner, USA; Warren D. Williams, USA (dirigible); Lt. Cdr. Charles E. C. Rosendahl, USA (dirigible); Lt. Thomas G. W. Settle, USA (spherical balloon);[15] Lt. Carlos de Haya González de Ubieta es:Carlos de Haya Gonzalez, Spain
1933 Wiley Post, USA[16] Maryse Hiltz, France[16] Lt. Cdr. Thomas G. W. Settle, USA (Spherical Balloon); Dr. Hugo Eckener, Germany (dirigible)[16] Mrs. Anne Morrow Lindbergh, USA; Lt. Cdr. Charles E. C. Rosendahl, USA (dirigible); Lt. Cdr. Thomas W. G. Settle, USA (spherical balloon); Francesco Agello, Italy; Mariano Barberan, Spain (posthumously); Herberts Cukurs, Latvia; Joaquin Collar, Spain (posthumously)[16]
1934 C. W. A. Scott; UK[17] Hélène Boucher, France (posthumously)[17] Capt. Ernst A. Lehmann, Germany (dirigible); Mme. Jeannette Piccard, Switzerland (United States) (spherical balloon)[17] Miss Laura Ingalls, USA; Dean C. Smith, USA; Lt. Cdr. H. V. Wiley, USA (dirigible); Maj. William E. Kepner, USA (spherical balloon); Edgardo Bonnet, Argentina; Maria Leloir de Udaondo, Argentina, Charles Kingsford-Smith, Australia, Teddy Franchomme, Belgium; E. Demuyter, Belgium, Mlle. S. Lippens, Belgium; Michael Hansen, Denmark; U. Makela, Finland; Jean Mermoz, France; Raymond Delmotte, France; Germain Bonnet, France; Heini Dittmar, Germany; Hans Kurt Fleming, Germany; Elly Beinhorn, Germany; K. D. Parmentier, Holland; Francesco Agello, Italy; Momosaburo Shinno, Japan; Kikuko Matsumoto, Japan; Capt. Jerzy Bajan, Poland; Franciszek Hynek, Poland; Humberto da Cruz, Portugal; Herman Baron, San Salvador; Luang Prung Prechakas, Siam; Ramon Torres, Spain; Walther Mittelholzer, Switzerland[17]
1935 Capt. Edwin Musick, USA[18] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand); Amelia Earhart, USA[18] Capt.Orvil Arson Anderson, USA; Capt.Albert William Stevens USA;(spherical balloon); Capt. Hans von Schiller, Germany (dirigible)[18] Arnold Looz-Corswarem, Belgium; Michael Hansen, Denmark; Capt. J. F. Broadbent, UK; André Japy, France; Bertha Alisch, Germany; Elly Beinhorn, Germany; Mario Stoppani, Italy; Casimiro Babbi, Italy; Marchesa Carina Negrone, Italy; Hoja Dzenitis, Lithuania; Gomez Namorado, Portugal; Juan Ignacio Pombo, Spain[18]
1936 Howard Hughes, USA[19] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand)[19] Capt. Ernest A. Lehmann, Germany; Ernest De Muyter, Belgium Mrs. Louise Thaden, USA; James Diamond, USA;[19] Carl Gotze, Jr., Germany
1937 Henry T. Merrill, USA[20] Jean Batten, UK (New Zealand)[20] No Award Presented Miss Jacqueline Cochran, USA; Howard Hughes, USA[20]
1938 Howard Hughes, USA;[21] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[21] No Award Presented Lt. Col. Robert Olds, USA (Diploma of Honor); Roscoe Turner, USA; Capt. Kellett and crew, UK; Michael Hansen, Denmark; Maurice Rossi, France; Elizabeth Lion, France; Capt. Alfred Henks, Germany; Hanna Reitsch, Germany; Lt. Col. Mario Pezzi, Italy; Maj. Yuzo Fujita, Japan; Capt. Viktors Eglitis, Latvia; Victor Alfredo Lara, San Salvador; Maj. Tonnard, Belgium (spherical balloon); Capt. Max Pruss, Germany (dirigible); Capt. Antoni Janusz, Poland (spherical balloon)[21]
1939 Maj. Alexander P. de Seversky, USA[22] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[23] No Award Presented
1945 Francisco Pignatari, Brazil
1946 Juan T. Trippe, USA[24]
1947 Alexander P. de Seversky, USA[25]
1948 Ralph S. Damon[26]
1949 Louis A. Johnson[27]
1940
to 1949[28]
Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, USA; Geoffrey de Havilland, UK (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention); Capt. Charles E. Yeager, USA (Citation of Honorable Mention)[29] Jacqueline Cochran, USA; Pauline Gower, UK (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention)[29] Vice Admiral Charles E. Rosendahl, USA; M. Charles Dollfus, France (Citation of Honorable Mention); Lt. Howard R. Walton, USA (posthumously) (Citation of Honorable Mention)[29]
1950 Col. David C. Schilling, USA[30] No Award Presented[30] National prize not awarded after 1949
1951 Capt. Charles F. Blair Jr, USA[31] Jacqueline Auriol, France[31] Lt. Carl J. Seiberlich, USA[31]
1952 Col. Bernt Balchen, USA (Norwegian-born)[32] Jacqueline Auriol, France[32] Walter L. Massic, USA[32]
1953 Maj. Charles E. Yeager, USA[33] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[33] No Award Presented[33]
1954 J. F. Coleman, USA[34] No Award Presented Capt. Marion H. Eppes, USA[34]
1955 Group Captain John Cunningham, UK[35] Jacqueline Auriol, France[35] Lt. Cdr. Charles A. Mills, USA[35]
1956 Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest Jr., USA[36] Jacqueline Auriol, France Lt. Cdr. Malcolm D. Ross, USA; Lt. Cdr. Morton L. Lewis, USA[36]
1957 Gen. Curtis E. LeMay, USA[37] No Award Presented Cdr. Jack R. Hunt, USA[37]
1958 Maj. André Edouard Turcat, France[38] No Award Presented
1959 Capt. Joe B. Jordan, USA[39] No Award Presented Capt. Joseph Kittinger, USA[39]
1960 A. Scott Crossfield, USA; Capt. Joseph A. Walker, USA; Maj. Robert M. White, USA[40] No Award Presented
1961 Lt. Col. William R. Payne, USA[41] Jacqueline Cochran, USA[41] Cdr. Malcolm D. Ross, USA; Lt. Cdr. Victor E. Prather, USA (posthumously)[41]
1962 Maj. Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr., USA[42] No Award Presented[42] Mrs. Nini Boesman, Netherlands (subsequently canceled[43])[42]
1963 Maj. L. Gordon Cooper, USA[42] Betty Miller, USA[42] No Award Presented[42]
1964 Max Conrad, USA[44] Joan Merriam Smith, USA (posthumously)[44] No Award Presented[44]
1965 Commander James Lovell Jr.; Lt. Col. Frank Borman; Captain Wally Schirra; Maj. Thomas P. Stafford (all USA)[45] No Award Presented
1966 Cmdr. James Lovell Jr.; Maj. Edwin E. Aldrin; Maj. Edward H. White II (all USA)[46] Sheila Scott, UK[46] No Award Presented[47]
1967 Major William J. Knight, USA[48] No Award Presented Astronaut
1968 Maj. Jerauld R. Gentry, USA[49] No Award Presented Col. Frank Borman; Capt. James A. Lovell; Lt. Col. William A. Anders (all USA)[49]
1969 Squadron Leader Thomas Lecky-Thompson, UK; Squadron Leader Graham Williams, UK[50] Turi Widerøe; Norway[50] No Award Presented[50] Neil Armstrong; Edwin E. Aldrin; Michael Collins[50]
1970 Brian Trubshaw, UK; Major André Edouard Turcat, France[51] Sheila Scott, UK No Award Presented
1971 Lt. Col. Thomas B. Estes, USA; Lt. Col. Dewain C. Vick, USA[51] Geraldyn Cobb, USA[51] No Award Presented
1972 Lt. Col. Edgar L. Allison, USA[52] No Award Presented No Award Presented
1973 Col. Edward J. Nash, USA[52] No Award Presented Malcolm S. Forbes, Sr., USA[52] Captain Charles Conrad, Jr.; Captain Paul J. Weitz; Captain Joseph Kerwin (all USA)[52]
1974
1975 Lt. Col. Herbert M. Fix, USA Marion Rice Hart, USA
1976 No Award Presented
1977
1978
1979 Byran Allen, USA No Award Presented
1980 Lt. (jg) John Currier, USCG No Award Presented
1981 Jerry Foster, USA[53] Janice Lee Brown, USA[53] John W. Young; Capt. Robert L. Crippen, Col. Joseph H. Engle; Capt. Richard Truly (all USA)[53]
1982 Dormon Cannon, USA; No Award Presented
1983 No Award Presented Dr. Sally Ride, USA
1984 Senator Barry Goldwater Brooke Knapp, USA
1985 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1986 Chief Warrant Officer Jon Iseminger, USA Jeana Yeager, USA
1987 Allen E. Paulson, USA Lois McCallin, USA
1988 Kanellos Kanellopoulos; Greece Anne Baddour, USA Per Lindstrand
1989 Capt. George A. Hof Jr., USA; Dr. Max E. Shauck, USA Gaby Kennard, Australia
1990 No Award Presented No Award Presented Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov, both Russia
1991 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1992 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1993 No Award Presented Vance D. Brand, USA
1994 No Award Presented No Award Presented
1995 No Award Presented Eileen M. Collins, USA
1998 No Award Presented Steve Fossett
1999 Don Cameron Бертран Пикар; Switzerland; Brian Jones, UK
2000 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2001 Jennifer Murray, UK (USA) Richard Abruzzo
2002 No Award Presented Steve Fossett
2003 No Award Presented Richard Abruzzo
2004 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2005 No Award Presented Carol Rymer Davis, Richard Abruzzo
2006 No Award Presented No Award Presented
2007 No Award Presented David Hempleman-Adams
2008 No Award Presented
Год Aviator[6] Aviatrix Aeronaut[7] Astronaut

Примечания[править | править исходный текст]

  1. Harmon International Trophies Origin and Purpose, Personal Collection of Charles E. Rosendahl. University of Texas, Dallas.
  2. Clifford B. Harmon to President Herbert Clark Hoover, Hoover Papers, Hoover Library (23 ноября 1929).
  3. Col.Harmon Dies; Aviation Pioneer; Donor of Aeronautic Trophy a Leader in Modern Technique --Suggested World Force Turned to Ballooning Wanted International Air Force Part in Naval Bombing (fee required), New York Times (3 июля 1945), стр. 13. Проверено 22 января 2007.
  4. 3 Endorse Fund for Air Awards; Harmon Trophy Winners Testify in Fight of Heirs Against Bequest of $55,000 (fee required), New York Times (21 апреля 1948), стр. 56. Проверено 22 января 2007.
  5. $48,431 to Harmon Fund; Sum Willed by Air Enthusiast to Maintain Trophy Awards (fee required), New York Times (27 октября 1948), стр. 54. Проверено 22 января 2007.
  6. 1 2 Awards from 1926-1952 from Significant American and International Awards in Aviation, Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, Revised February 1954
  7. 1 2 Aeronaut awards from 1998 on provided by the National Aeronautic Association's Recent aeronaut list
  8. Peace Ace, Time (24 января 1927). Проверено 16 февраля 2007.
  9. Air Mail Ace Wins Harmon 1926 Trophy; Aviation Award to Pilot Short Is for Merit of Consistent Flying Over Spectacular Performances, New York Times (14 января 1927). Проверено 16 февраля 2007.
  10. Carl "Ben" Eielson Biography, National Aviation Hall of Fame
  11. 1 2 3 The Harmon National Trophy for Australia, Airways Museum Virtual Tour
  12. Time Magazine, March 17, 1930
  13. Aviation Trophy Given to Doolittle; He Receives Harmon Award at Cleveland for His Work in "Blind" Flying, New York Times, April 8, 1931
  14. 1 2 3 4 General Balbo Wins the Harmon Trophy; Declared 1931 World Aviation Champion -- Ruth Nichols, Pangborn and Herndon Honored, New York Times March 5, 1932
  15. 1 2 3 4 Amelia Earhart Honored; Receives Award of Harmon Trophy for Transatlantic Flight, New York Times April 15, 1933
  16. 1 2 3 4 Post and Settle Win Flying Prizes; Gain Harmon International Trophies for 1933 for World and Stratosphere Flights. Mrs. Lindbergh Honored Takes Award as Leading U.S. Aviatrix Last Year -- Rosendahl and Eckener Also Named, New York Times April 22, 1934
  17. 1 2 3 4 Harmon Air Prize is Won by Scott; Briton Gets the International Award for Best Aviator -- Capt. Lehmann Honored, New York Times March 11, 1935
  18. 1 2 3 4 World's Air Title is Won by Musick; Veteran Pilot of Pan American Clipper Ships Is Named to Get the Harmon Trophy, New York Times, April 18, 1936
  19. 1 2 3 Air Prize for Hughes; Jean Batten Honored; American Cross-Country Flier and New Zealand Girl Get Harmon Trophies, New York Times, March 1, 1937
  20. 1 2 3 Merrill, Jean Batten Win Harmon Awards; Aviation Honors American and New Zealander-Hughes and Miss Cochran, Named, New York Times, February 18, 1938
  21. 1 2 3 Hughes is Named Aviation Champion; Round-the-World Flier Gets Harmon Trophy--Olds of Army Wins Medal and Diploma, New York Times, March 25, 1939
  22. De Seversky Honored for Plane Advances; Receives Harmon Trophy From President--Sees Air Navies, New York Times, December 20, 1940
  23. Trophy Presented to Miss Cochran; Flier Receives the Clifford Burke Harmon Award From Mrs. Roosevelt, New York Times, November 9, 1940
  24. Harry S. Truman - The President's Day, February 27, 1947
  25. Harry S. Truman - Truman presenting aeronautics award to Alexander de Seversky, June 24, 1947
  26. Ralph S. Damon Honored, New York Times June 24, 1949
  27. RLK to Matthew J. Connelly, Truman Papers, Truman Library (22 марта 1950), стр. WHCF: OF 1049 357R.
  28. The Harmon Trophy was presented once for the entire decade. Time Magazine, November 13, 1950
  29. 1 2 3 Harry S. Truman - The President's Day, November 2, 1950
  30. 1 2 Harmon Prize Won by Col. Schilling; Leading Fighter Pilot in Last War Named World's Top Aviator of 1950, New York Times, July 5, 1951
  31. 1 2 3 Airline Pilot Wins Top Harmon Prize; Capt. C. F. Blair Jr. Is Named 'Outstanding Aviator' - Award to Mme. Auriol, New York Times, July 5, 1952
  32. 1 2 3 3 Fliers Selected for Harmon Prizes; Col. Balchen, Jacqueline Auriol and Blimp Test Pilot Named Winners of 1953 {presented in 1953 for 1952} Trophies, New York Times, July 5, 1953
  33. 1 2 3 Yeager, Cochran Win Air Trophies; Harmon Judges Pick Major and Aviatrix for Flights Topping Speed of Sound, New York Times, July 5, 1954
  34. 1 2 Harmon Prizes go for 2 Air 'Firsts'; Vertical-Flight Test Pilot and Airship Endurance Captain Are 1955 Winners, New York Times, July 5, 1955
  35. 1 2 3 3 Aviators to get Harmon Trophies; British Test Pilot, French Woman Flier and American Navy Officer Picked, New York Times, August 5, 1956
  36. 1 2 Three Fliers Win Harmon Awards; Honored for Aerial Achievements, New York Times, August 11, 1957
  37. 1 2 LeMay and Navy Blimp Man Get Harmon Air Prize, New York Times, November 13, 1958
  38. Frenchman Cited as Flier of Year, New York Times, December 12, 1959
  39. 1 2 2 Air Force Pilots Win Harmon Prizes, New York Times, July 3, 1960
  40. John F. Kennedy - Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon Trophy to Three Test Pilots of the X-15 Rocket Plane, November 28, 1961
  41. 1 2 3 President Gives Harmon Trophies; Three Pilots and Widow of Another Get Awards, New York Times, October 19, 1962
  42. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Astronaut to get a Harmon Trophy; Cooper Will Be Honored for Orbital Trip in 1963, New York Times, August 2, 1964
  43. Award to Dutch Balloonist Canceled by Harmon Trust, New York Times, September 7, 1964
  44. 1 2 3 2 Named Winners of Harmon Prizes; Max Conrad and Late Mrs. Smith Hailed for Flights, New York Times, August 8, 1965
  45. Astronauts Names for Harmon Award, New York Times, August 7, 1966
  46. 1 2 Harmon Winners for 1967 {presented in 1967 for 1966} are Named, New York Times September 10, 1967
  47. Ошибка в сносках?: Неверный тег <ref>; для сносок ryan1967 не указан текст
  48. Lyndon B. Johnson, Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon Trophy to Maj. William J. Knight, USAF, December 3, 1968
  49. Ошибка в сносках?: Неверный тег <ref>; для сносок nyt1968 не указан текст
  50. 1 2 3 4 Two R.A.F. Pilots to Share Harmon Aviator's Trophy, New York Times September 7, 1970
  51. 1 2 3 5 Top Pilots Cited, New York Times, September 21, 1973
  52. 1 2 3 4 Gerald R. Ford - Remarks Upon Presenting the Harmon International Aviation Trophies, May 2, 1975
  53. 1 2 3 The Daily Diary of President Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan Library, December 7, 1982

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