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Бил-стрит — улица в Даунтауне Мемфиса (штат Теннеси, США). Проходит от реки Миссисипи до улицы Ист-стрит. Протяженность улицы составляет примерно 1,8 мили (2,9 км). Эта улица занимает значительное место в истории Мемфиса, а также в развитии блюза. Сегодня блюз-клубы и рестораны находящиеся на Бил-стрит являются одними из главных достопримечательностей Мемфиса, а фестивали и концерты на открытом воздухе периодически собирают большие толпы людей на улице и прилегающей к ней районах.

История[править | править вики-текст]

Бил-стрит в 1974 году
Бил-стрит в 2010 году

Бил-стрит была заложен в 1841 году предпринимателем и девелопером Топпом Робертсоном (1807—1876), который назвал её в честь забытого военного героя[1][2][3]. Первоночально она называлась Бил-авеню. В западной части располагались магазины купцов, которые продавали товары с кораблей вдоль реки Миссисипи. Восточная же часть улицы располагалась на богатой окраине города[2].  В 1860-х годах многие бродячие черные музыканты начали выступать на Бил-стрит. Первыми, кто выступил на ней были Young Men's Brass Band[2], которые в 1867 году сформировали Sam Thomas.

В 1870-е годы население города потрясла серия эпидемий желтой лихорадки, в результате чего в 1879 году Мемфис потерял статус города[2]. В это время Роберт Черч (англ.)русск. приобретает земли вокруг Бил-стрит, что впоследствии делает его первым чернокожим миллионером с юга[2]. В 1890 году на Бил-стрит был построен Grand Opera House, позже ставший известным как Орфеум. В 1899 году Роберт Черч выкупил у города участок на углу Бил-стрит и 4-й улицы и создал там парк (Church Park). Church Park стал центром притяжения для блюзовых музыкантов. Его основной достопримечательностью был зрительный зал вмещающий две тысячи посетителей[4]. Наиболее известными спикерами, выступавшими в аудитории Church Park были Вудро Вильсон, Букер Вашингтон и Франклин Рузвельт[2].

В начале 1900-х, Бил-стрит был заполнен большим количеством клубов, ресторанов и магазинов, многие из которых принадлежали афроамериканцам . В 1889 году соучредитель NAACP Ида Уэллс (англ.)русск. стала совладельцем и редактором газеты Free Speech. Эта газета, базирующаяся на Бил-стрит, выступала против сегрегации. Баптистская церковь на Бил-стрит – старейшее здание афроамериканской церкви в Теннеси. Оно было построено в 1864 году и оказало важное значение в становлении движения за гражданские права в Мемфисе.

In 1903, Mayor Thornton was looking for a music teacher for his Knights of Pythias Band and called Tuskegee Institute to talk to his friend, Booker T. Washington, who recommended a trumpet player in Clarksdale, Mississippi, named W. C. Handy. Mayor Thornton contacted Handy, and Memphis became the home of the famous musician who created the «Blues on Beale Street». Mayor Thornton and his three sons also played in Handy’s band.[5]

In 1909, W. C. Handy wrote «Mr. Crump» as a campaign song for political machine leader E. H. Crump. The song was later renamed «The Memphis Blues». Handy also wrote a song called «Beale Street Blues» in 1916 which influenced the change of the street’s name from Beale Avenue to Beale Street. From the 1920s to the 1940s, Louis Armstrong, Muddy Waters, Albert King, Memphis Minnie, B. B. King, Rufus Thomas, Rosco Gordon and other blues and jazz legends played on Beale Street and helped develop the style known as Memphis Blues. As a young man, B. B. King was billed as «the Beale Street Blues Boy». One of Handy’s proteges on Beale Street was the young Walter Furry Lewis, who later became a well known blues musician. In his later years Lewis lived near Fourth and Beale, and in 1969 was recorded there in his apartment by Memphis music producer Terry Manning.

In 1934, local community leader George Washington Lee authored Beale Street: Where the Blues Began; the first book by a black author to be advertised in the Book-of-the-Month Club News.[6]

In 1938, Lewis O. Swingler, editor of the Memphis World Newspaper, a Negro newspaper, in an effort to increase circulation, conceived the idea of a «Mayor of Beale St.», having readers vote for the person of their choice. Matthew Thornton, Sr., a well-known community leader, active in political, civic and social affairs and one of the charter members of the Memphis Branch of the NAACP, won the contest against nine opponents and received 12,000 of the 33,000 votes cast. Mr. Thornton was the original «Mayor of Beale St.» an honorary position that he retained until he died in 1963 at the age of 90.

In the 1960s, Beale became run down and many stores closed, although on May 23, 1966, the section of the street from Main to 4th was declared a National Historic Landmark.[7][8] On December 15, 1977, Beale Street was officially declared the «Home of the Blues» by an act of Congress. Despite this national recognition of its historic significance, Beale was a virtual ghost town after a disastrous urban renewal program with every building except Schwabs boarded up.

In 1973, the Beale Street Development Corporation (BSDC) was formed by George B. Miller and others as a cross-sectional, bi-racial cooperative effort for the redevelopment of Beale Street. The corporation was selected by the City of Memphis to participate in the redevelopment of the blocks on Beale between Second and Fourth streets in August 1978. The corporation dedicated its efforts to the success of the Beale Street Project for the preservation of the street’s rich history, and to its cultural as well as physical development. This corporation with Miller’s guidance raised 5.2 million dollars in grants for the renovation of Beale Street.

In approx. 1980, the City of Memphis wanted the BSDC to have a management company to collect the rent, keep the street clean and manage the clubs and businesses as they were rented out. Each lease had to be signed off by BSDC, the City of Memphis and Performa. Performa was to collect the rent and keep a percentage for a managing fee per tenant, then turn the rest of the monies over to the BSDC. The Corporation would then, in turn, pay a percentage of those fees to the City of Memphis. To this day, the BSDC has never received payment.

Later, Memphis wanted to purchase the BSDC; to do that, the original members were brought back together. At that point, the original membership became unclear and divided. The creator of BSDC, George Miller, and the other persons that say they were the original members went to court to see who the true original 25 members were. Randall Catron had his 25 members and was dealing with the City of Memphis to purchase the BSDC. The judge asked each party to write down the name of the original members on each card. After that was done, the judge put all the names in a hat and said the first 25 names drawn from the hat would make up the BSDC. He asked Mr. Miller to put his 25 cards in a Lincoln-style hat where the index cards could not be shaken shuffled or rearranged. Then, he asked Randall Catron to place his cards on the top of the hat. All the names drawn were the top names in the hat. There were no cameras allowed in the courtroom for this scientific method of deciding who were the original members of BSDC. Elkington did not build any original buildings on Beale Street. Later, Elkington did bring good tenants to Beale Street but was not the original developer.

During the first weekend of May (sometimes including late April), the Beale Street Music Festival brings major music acts from a variety of musical genres to Tom Lee Park at the end of Beale Street on the Mississippi River. The festival is the kickoff event of a month of festivities citywide known as Memphis in May.[9]

Attractions[править | править вики-текст]

  • Blues City Cafe & The Band Box (138—142 Beale)
  • Blues City General Store (144 Beale)
  • B. B. Kings Blues Club (143 Beale)
  • Memphis Music (149 Beale)
  • Club 152 (152 Beale)
  • The Shadows — 3rd floor of Club 152 (152 Beale)
  • Tater Red’s (153 Beale)
  • Miss Polly’s Soul City Cafe(154 Beale)
  • Alley Katz (156 Beale)
  • Superior Bar (159 Beale)
  • King’s Palace Cafe (162 Beale)
  • A. Schwab's (163 Beale St)
  • The Pig (167 Beale)
  • Beale St. Tap Room (168 Beale)
  • The Black Diamond (153 Beale)
  • Strange Cargo (172 Beale)
  • Rum Boogie Café (182 Beale)
  • Silky O Sullivan’s (183 Beale)
  • FedExForum (191 Beale)
  • Memphis Rock N Soul Museum (191 Beale)
  • Alfred’s On Beale (197 Beale)
  • Beale Street Blues Gifts (200 Beale)
  • Dyer’s Famous Hamburgers (205 Beale)
  • Wet Willies (209 Beale)
  • Hard Rock Cafe (315 Beale)
  • People’s Billiard Club (323 Beale)
  • Coyote Ugly (326 Beale)
  • Historic Daisy Theater (329 Beale)
  • The New Daisy Theatre (330 Beale)
  • The Lange Place
  • Mr. Handy’s Blues Hall
  • Eel Etc. Fashions (333 Beale)
  • Jerry Lee Lewis' Cafe and Honky Tonk (310 Beale)
  • Lil Anthony’s Cafe (341 Beale)
  • W.C. Handy historic home (352 Beale)
  • Red Rooster (340 Beale)
  • The Beale Street Flippers
  • Johnny Gs Creole Kitchen (156 Beale)

Musical references[править | править вики-текст]

References[править | править вики-текст]

  1. About Beale Street. BealeStreet.com. Проверено 23 июня 2007. Архивировано из первоисточника 30 мая 2007.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Raichelson Richard M. Beale Street Talks: A Walking Tour Down The Home Of The Blues. — Memphis, TN: Arcadia Records, 1999. — ISBN 0-9647545-1-7
  3. Genealogical Tidbits, Memphis Daily Appeal, 1876
  4. Barlow, William. «Looking Up At Down»: The Emergence of Blues Culture. Temple University Press (1989), p. 208. ISBN 0-87722-583-4.
  5. wc handy
  6. Sewell, George A. & Dwight, Margaret L. (1977), «Mississippi Black History Makers», University Press of Mississippi, <http://books.google.ca/books?id=ve8QmE8kdjIC&lpg=PA169&dq=%22george%20washington%20lee%22%20%22%20%22Lieutenant%20Lee%22&pg=PR4#v=onepage&q&f=false> 
  7. Cecil McKithan and Horace Sheely (1988), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Beale Street / Beale Street Historic District, National Park Service, <http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/66000731.pdf>. Проверено 22 июня 2009.  and Accompanying 15 photos, from 1965 and undatedPDF (3.53 MB)
  8. Ошибка в сносках?: Неверный тег <ref>; для сносок nhlsum не указан текст
  9. Memphis in May Webpage.
  10. jonimitchell.com — Lyrics: Furry Sings The Blues

External links[править | править вики-текст]