Международная премия Гайрднера

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Международная премия Гайрднера
англ. Gairdner Foundation International Award
Страна

Флаг Канады Канада

Награда за

Достижения в области медицинских наук

Учредитель

«Gairdner Foundation»

Основание

1957

Сайт

www.gairdner.org

Международная премия Гайрднера[1] (англ. Gairdner Foundation International Award) — ежегодная научная премия, вручаемая Фондом Гайрднера[en]Gairdner Foundation», Канада) за выдающиеся достижения в области медицинских наук. Одна из самых престижных в мире биомедицинских наград, рассматриваемая, как «преднобелевская».

История[править | править вики-текст]

Фонд The Gairdner Foundation был создан в 1957 году Джеймсом Артуром Гайрднером. Первое вручение премий состоялось в 1959 году. На 2009 год премию получили 298 человек из 13 стран, включая 42 канадцев.

Лауреат этой премии традиционно рассматривается как главный кандидат на Нобелевскую премию по медицине.[2] По данным на 2007 год, 69 Нобелевских лауреатов до неё ранее уже получили Международную премию Гайрднера.[3] Премия в размере 100.000 канадских долларов вручается ежегодно, как правило, нескольким (3-6) биологам или медикам от имени Фонда Гайрднера (Канада).

Лауреаты[править | править вики-текст]

Среди лауреатов:[4]

Год Лауреат Обоснование награды
2016 Фэн Чжан
Дженнифер Дудна
Эммануэль Шарпентье
«for development of CRISPR-CAS as a genome editing tool for eukaryotic cells»
Филипп Хорват[en]
Rodolphe Barrangou[en]
«for establishing and characterizing CRISPR-Cas bacterial immune defense system»
2015 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2016 Ёсинори Осуми «for pioneering the molecular elucidation of autophagy, an essential intracellular, degradation system and when disordered, is linked to many diseases including neurodegeneration, cancer, and infection»[5]
Shimon Sakaguchi[en] «for his discovery of regulatory T cells, characterization of their role in immunity and application to the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer»[6]
Lynne E. Maquat[en] «for the discovery of the mechanism that destroys mutant messenger RNAs in human cells, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which is critically important in both normal and disease states»[7]
Майкл Холл «for his discovery of the nutrient activated protein kinase TOR and elucidation of its central control of cell growth, critical to development and aging and widely implicated in cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular and immune diseases»[8]
Льюис Кэнтли «for his discovery of PI 3-Kinase, a critical component of the cell signaling machinery that plays a key role in normal functions of proliferations and growth and is de-regulated in diseases such as cancer and diabetes»[9]
2014 Тития де Ланге «For her discovery of the mechanisms by which mammalian telomeres are protected from deleterious DNA repair and damage responses»[10]
Джеймс Эллисон «For his discovery of immune checkpoint blockade and its successful application to immune therapy of cancer»[11]
Ravinder Nath Maini[en]
Marc Feldmann[en]
«For the discovery of anti-TNF therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases»[12][13]
Наполеоне Феррара
Harold F. Dvorak[en]
«For discovering Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a key molecular mediator of new blood vessel formation and the development of effective anti-VEGF therapy for cancer and wet macular degeneration»[14][15]
2013 Gregory Winter[en] «For the engineering of humanized monoclonal antibodies and their widespread use in medical therapy, particularly for treatment of cancer and immune disorders»[16]
Stephen Joseph Elledge[en] «For elucidation of the DNA damage response as a signaling network that controls DNA repair and genomic stability with profound implications for cancer and other diseases»[17]
Daniel W. Bradley[en]
Harvey J. Alter[en]
«For critical contributions to the discovery and isolation of the hepatitis C virus, which has led to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents»[18][19]
Michael Houghton[en] Первый человек который отказался от Международной премии Гайрднера. Он заявил: «I felt that it would be unfair of me to accept this award without the inclusion of two colleagues, Dr. Qui-Lim Choo[en] and Dr. George Kuo[en][20][21]
2012 Michael Rosbash[en]
Jeffrey C. Hall[en]
Michael W. Young[en]
«For his pioneering discoveries concerning the biological clock responsible for circadian rhythms»[22][23][24]
Jeffrey V. Ravetch[en] «For his seminal work on identifying the Fc receptors of antibodies, which play a key role in the immune response, and for establishing their critical role in autoimmune diseases and cancer»[25]
Томас Джессел «For research in defining the genetic and molecular pathways leading to the complex development of the spinal cord, with implications for therapeutic applications»[26]
2011 Эдриан Бёрд
Ахарон Разин
Хаим Сидер
«For his pioneering discoveries on DNA methylation and its role in gene expression»[27][28][29]
Сидзуо Акира «For his ground-breaking discovery of Toll like receptors and the array of microbial compounds that they recognize to provide innate resistance to infection»[30]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2011 Жюль Офман «For his ground-breaking discovery of the family of Toll like receptors and the array of microbial compounds that they recognize to provide innate resistance to infection»[31]
2010 Peter J. Ratcliffe[en]
Gregg L. Semenza[en]
William G. Kaelin Jr.[en]
«For identification of molecular mechanisms of oxygen sensing in the cell»[32][33][34]
William A. Catterall[en] «For discovery of the voltage-gated sodium channel and calcium channel proteins and the elucidation of their function and regulation»[35]
Пьер Шамбон «For the elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of transcription in animal cells and to the discovery of the nuclear receptor superfamily»[36]
2009 Питер Уолтер
Мори Кадзутоси
«For the dissection and elucidation of a key pathway in the unfolded protein response which regulates protein folding in the cell»[37][38]
Lucy Shapiro[en]
Richard Losick[en]
«For the discovery of mechanisms that define cell polarity and asymmetric cell division, processes key in cell differentiation and in the generation of cell diversity»[39][40]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2012 Синъя Яманака «For his demonstration that the key transcription factors which specify pluripotency may become reprogrammed somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells»[41]
2008 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2008 Харальд цур Хаузен «For the discovery of the causative role of papilloma viruses in cancer of the cervix which led to the development of a successful HPV vaccine»[42]
Гэри Равкан
Виктор Эмброс
«For the discovery and characterization of micro RNA's, important in the regulations of gene function»[43][44]
Nahum Sonenberg[en] «For his pioneering discoveries in cellular translation of genetic information»[45]
Samuel Weiss[en] «For his seminal discovery of adult neural stem cells in the mammalian brain and its importance in nerve cell regeneration»[46]
2007 Чарльз Дэвид Эллис «For his transforming studies demonstrating the link between chromatin structure and gene transcription and elucidating the mechanisms by which a variety of post-translational modifications of histones are involved in gene expression and genome maintenance and stability»[47]
Kim A. Nasmyth[en] «For his discovery of the mechanism of chromosome segregation during cell division, which has profound implications for our understanding of chromosome non-disjunction in human cancer and other genetic diseases»[48]
Harry F. Noller[en]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 2009 Томас Стейц
«For his studies on the structure and function of the ribosome which showed that the peptidyl transferase was an RNA catalyzed reaction, and for revealing the mechanism of inhibition of this function by antibiotics»[49][50]
Dennis J. Slamon[en] «For the development of targeted therapy Herceptin against advanced breast cancer expressing the Her-2/Neu oncogene resulting in more effective therapy for breast cancer»[51]
2006 Ralph L. Brinster[en] «For his pioneering discoveries in germ line modifications in mammals»[52]
Рональд Марк Эванс «For his seminal studies defining new classes of nuclear hormone receptors and elucidating their role in energy metabolism and endocrine-related disease»[53]
Alan Hall[en]
Thomas D. Pollard[en]
«For his discoveries related to understanding the cytoskeleton of the cell and the basis of cell mobility and its relevance to human disease»[54][55]
Joan A. Steitz[en] «For her discovery of the reactivity of autoimmune sera with ribonucleoprotein particles and elucidation of the roles of small nuclear RNAs in messenger RNA processing»[56]
2005 Бренда Милнер
Эндель Тульвинг
«For pioneering research in the understanding of human memory, and providing the necessary framework within which findings in neuroanatomy, neuroplysiology, and neuropharmacology can be integrated»[57][58]
Дуглас Коулман
Джеффри Фридман
«For contributions to our understanding of obesity and particularly for the discovery of the adipose tissue hormone, leptin»[59][60]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2006 Эндрю Файер
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2006 Крейг Мелло
«For the discovery of RNA interference which initiated a revolution in the study and use of RNA in gene silencing»[61][62]
2004 Сеймур Бензер «For pioneering discoveries that both founded and greatly advanced an entire field of neurogenetics, thereby transforming our understanding of the brain and its mechanisms»[63]
R. John Ellis[en]
Франц-Ульрих Хартль
«For his fundamental discoveries concerning chaperone assisted protein folding in the cell and its relevance to neurodegeneration»[64][65]
Артур Хорвич «For his fundamental discoveries concerning chaperone assisted protein folding in the cell and its relevance to neurodegeneration»[66]
George Sachs[en] «For his elucidation of mechanisms of gastric acid secretion and the development of novel therapies for gastric disease»[67]
2003 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2004 Ричард Эксел
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2004 Линда Бак
«For their discovery of the olfactory receptors and the clarification of how these receptors transfer olfactory signals to the brain»[68][69]
Wayne Hendrickson[en] «For contributions to macromolecular crystallography, in the development of robust methods of phasing and refinement, and in the determination of complex and biologically important structures»[70]
Сэйдзи Огава «For his development of blood oxygenation dependent imaging which has revolutionized the field of functional magnetic resource imaging (fMRI), and used extensively to study brain function»[71]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2011 Ральф Стайнман «For his discovery and characterization of the role of the dendritic cell, a pivotal phagocytic cell in the immune system and essential to the development of vaccines»[72]
2002 Френсис Коллинз (Award of Merit) «For his outstanding leadership in the Human Genome Project and particularly for the international effort to map and sequence the human and other genomes»[73]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1962 Джеймс Дьюи Уотсон (Award of Merit) «For his 50 years of unparalelled contributions to biology and medical science, and in particular for his critical international leadership during the creation of the Human Genome Project»[74]
Philip Palmer Green[en] «For his contributions to development of the computational tools essential for sequencing of the human genome»[75]
Эрик Лэндер
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2002 Джон Салстон
Роберт Уотерсон[en]
«For their major seminal contributions to the sequencing of the human and other genomes»[76][77][78]
Maynard V. Olson[en] «For his original concepts, and for technological and experimental innovations that were critical for the sequencing of the mammalian genomes»[79]
Крейг Вентер «For his major advancement of whole genome sequencing and its applications to microbial, human and other genomes»[80]
Michael S. Waterman[en] «For his contributions to computational molecular biology that greatly facilitated sequencing of the human genome»[81]
Jean Weissenbach[en] «For his unique contributions in creating a detailed genetic map of the human genome»[82]
2001 Clay Armstrong[en]
Bertil Hille[en]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 2003 Родерик Маккинон
«For the elucidation of the mechanism of action and molecular structure of cation channels»[83][84][85]
Marc Kirschner[en] «For his pioneering work in the understanding of the structure, function and dynamics of microtubules»[86]
2000 Роберт Редер
Нобелевская премия по химии — 2006 Роджер Корнберг
«For their studies on the transcription machinery and elucidation of the basic mechanisms of transcription in eukaryotic cells»[87][88]
Alain Townsend[en]
Emil R. Unanue[en]
«For their discovery of the molecular and cellular basis of antigen processing leading to our understanding of the physiological role of histocompatibility molecules and T lymphocyte antigen recognition»[89][90]
Jack Hirsh[en] «In recognition of his pioneering contributions to our understanding of the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders»[91]
1999 Нобелевская премия по химии — 2004 Аврам Гершко
Александр Варшавский
«For the discovery of the ubiquitin system of intracellular protein degradation and its many functions in the cell»[92][93]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2002 Роберт Хорвиц
Andrew Wyllie[en]
«In recognition of their pioneering contribution to our understanding of apoptosis»[94][95]
1998 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2009 Элизабет Блэкбёрн
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2009 Кэрол Грейдер
«For the discovery of the structure of telomeres and the enzyme that synthesizes them»[96][97]
Giuseppe Attardi[en]
Walter Neupert[de]
«For his pioneering contribution to our understanding of the structure of the human mitochondrial genome and its role in human disease»[98][99]
Gottfried Schatz[en] «For the discovery of the transport of proteins into mitochondria»[100]
1997 Corey Goodman[de] «For his many contributions to development neurobiology, in particular for his initial cellular and subsequent molecular and genetic dissection of the mechanisms controlling the guidance of neuronal growth cones to find and recognize their correct targets»[101]
Richard O. Hynes[en]
Erkki Ruoslahti[en]
«For the discovery and characterization of the molecules responsible for cell-substrate adhesion including fibronections and integrins: and for recognizing the importance of extracellular matrix-cell interactions in modulating cell phenotype, and their clinical relevance in such fields as cancer, blood coagulation and wound healing»[102][103]
Альфред Кнудсон «For his development of a two-hit mutational hypothesis for the origin of cancer that related hereditary and non-hereditary forms of retinoblastoma and other tumors; this hypothesis has become a paradigm for mutational theories on the origins of cancer and led directly to the concept of suppressor oncogenes»[104]
1996 Роберт Лэнджер «For discoveries that led to the development of controlled drug release systems»[105]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2005 Барри Маршалл «For the discovery of the role of Helicobacter Pylori as a cause of peptic ulcer disease and the benefit that patients receive from its eradication»[106]
Роули, Дженет «For establishing the critical importance of chromosomal rearrangement as a specific cause of human cancer and for a lifetime of research to identify the genes that are rearranged to cause leukemia and lymphoma»[107]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2013 Джеймс Ротман
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2013 Рэнди Шекман
«For the identification of proteins involved in intracellular traffic and vesicle fusion»[108][109]
1995 Брюс Альбертс
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1959 Артур Корнберг
«For fundamental contributions to our understanding of the replication of DNA»[110][111]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 2008 Роджер Тсиен «For the design, synthesis and use of molecules to measure and manipulate intracellular signalling»[112]
1994 Pamela J. Bjorkman[en]
Don Craig Wiley[en]
«For contributions to our understanding of the immune system by elucidation of the complex formed between MHC class I proteins and peptides derived from foreign antigens»[113][114]
Энтони Хантер
Энтони Джеймс Поусон
«For contributions to our understanding of the role of tyrosine kinases in signal transduction pathways that control cell growth»[115][116]
Donald Metcalf[en] «For contributions to the clinical use of colony-stimulating factors in the treatment of depressed hematopoiesis»[117]
1993 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2007 Марио Капекки
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2007 Оливер Смитис
«For pioneering work in the use of homologous recombination to generate targeted mutations in the mouse»[118][119]
Alvan Feinstein[en] «For his leading role in the establishment of the discipline of clinical epidemiology»[120]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1997 Стенли Прузинер «For elucidating the role of a novel infectious particle in certain diseases of the nervous system»[121]
Майкл Тер-Погосян «For contributions to the development and application of positron emission tomography»[122]
1992 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2001 Леланд Хартвелл
Yoshio Masui[en]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2001 Пол Нерс
«In recognition of their contributions in the field of cell cycle regulation»[123][124][125]
Ричард Пето «For his contributions to the design and analysis of clinical trials»[126]
Берт Фогельштейн
Роберт Вайнберг
«For elucidating the genetic events leading to the development of specific cancers»[127][128]
1991 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2002 Сидней Бреннер «In recognition of his highly original and conceptual contributions to molecular biology, and to the understanding of how genetic information is read and translated»[129]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2002 Джон Салстон «For establishing C. elegans as a model for studying genetic control of development»[130]
Джуда Фолкман «For his contributions to our understanding of the process of angiogenesis»[131]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1998 Роберт Ферчготт «For his discovery and characterization of endothelial relaxing factor»[132]
David MacLennan[en] «For his contributions to our understanding of muscle membranes and ion transport»[133]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1993 Кэри Муллис «For his discovery of the polymerase chain reaction»[134]
1990 Френсис Коллинз
John R. Riordan[en]
Lap-Chee Tsui[en]
«For contributions to the identification of the gene for cystic fibrosis»[135][136][137]
Victor Ling[en] «For his discovery of the role of P-glycoprotein in the development of multidrug resistance of cancer cells»[138]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2007 Оливер Смитис
Эдвин Саузерн
«For the discovery, development and application of gel electrophoresis methods that allow the separation and identification of specific proteins and nucleic acids»[139][140]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1990 Эдвард Донналл Томас «For the development of bone marrow transplantation as a therapy for leukemia and other blood disorders»[141]
1989 Mark M. Davis[en]
Tak W. Mak[en]
«For contributions to the cloning and sequencing of the gene for the T-cell receptor»[142][143]
Jean-Marie Ghuysen[de] «For elucidating the mechanism of action of the beta-Iactam group of antibiotics»[144]
Louis M. Kunkel[en]
Ronald G. Worton[en]
«For contributions to the isolation and cloning of the gene for Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy»[145][146]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1991 Эрвин Неер
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1991 Берт Сакман
«For the development of the patch clamp technique»[147][148]
1988 Albert Aguayo[en] «For the discovery that regrowth and restoration of neural connections is possible in the injured adult mammalian central nervous system»[149]
Майкл Берридж
Ясутоми Нисидзука
«For his work in establishing the roles of inositol trisphosphate, diacylglycerol, calcium and protein kinase C during signal transduction and in growth and differentiation»[150][151]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1989 Томас Роберт Чек «For the discovery that some forms of RNA have catalytic properties»[152]
Майкл Энтони Эпстайн «For the identification of the Epstein-Barr virus»[153]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 2012 Роберт Лефковиц «For contributions to our understanding of the structure and regulation of adrenergic receptors»[154]
1987 Рене Фавалоро «For the introduction and development of coronary artery bypass surgery»[155]
Роберт Галло
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2008 Люк Монтанье
«For the identification and isolation of the virus causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome»[156][157]
Walter Jakob Gehring[en]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1995 Эдвард Льюис
«For the identification and analysis of genes that control embryonic development»[158][159]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2000 Эрик Кандел «For elucidating the mechanisms of learning and memory in nerve cells»[160]
Michael Rossmann[en] «For contributions to the field of x-ray crystallography and its application to the structure of the common cold virus»[161]
1986 Jean-Francois Borel[de] «For the discovery of the immunosuppressive properties of cyclosporine A»[162]
Джеймс Дарнелл
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1993 Филлип Шарп
«For increasing our understanding of RNA processing and gene expression»[163][164]
Adolfo J. de Bold[en]
T. Geoffrey Flynn[de]
Harald Sonnenberg[de]
«For the discovery and characterization of atrial natriuretic factor»[165][166][167]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1996 Питер Дохерти
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1996 Рольф Цинкернагель
«For extending our understanding of the interaction of T lymphocytes with cells bearing foreign antigens»[168][169]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1993 Майкл Смит «For the development and use of the technique of site-specific mutagenesis»[170]
1985 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1986 Стэнли Коэн «In recognition of his research on growth factors, and particularly for the isolation, purification and elucidation of the function of epidermal growth factor»[171]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2003 Пол Лотербур «For first proposing the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to produce images and demonstrating its application to human disease»[172]
Раймон Лемьё «For his contributions to the organic synthesis and structural analysis of oligosaccharides with human blood-group antigen specificity»[173]
Mary F. Lyon[en] «For her contributions to our understanding of X-chromosome inactivation and its significance in normal and abnormal development»[174]
Марк Ташне
Чарлз Яновский
«For their many contributions in the field of molecular genetics, especially in the field of gene regulation»[175][176]
1984 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1989 Джон Майкл Бишоп
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1989 Харолд Вармус
«For research on viral and cellular oncogenes that extends our understanding of the molecular basis of human cancer»[177][178]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1994 Альфред Гилман
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1994 Мартин Родбелл
«For elucidating the mechanism by which peptide hormones act across cell membranes to influence cell function»[179][180]
Кань Ютвай «For his discovery of DNA polymorphism in sickle cell disease and thalassemia and its application to the antenatal diagnosis of human disease»[181]
Krešimir Krnjević[en] «For his research on the mechanisms of brain cell communication»[182]
Robert Noble[en] «For his discovery of the important anticancer drug Vinblastine»[183]
1983 Donald Henderson[en] «For his leading role in the World Health Organization program that eradicated smallpox throughout the world»[184]
Bruce Ames[en] «For his development of a rapid and sensitive screening test that detects potential carcinogens in our environment»[185]
Gerald D. Aurbach[en] «For his pioneering work in the purification of parathyroid hormone and his continuing studies of its mechanism of action»[186]
John Allen Clements[en] «For his characterization of pulmonary surfactant and his contributions to our understanding of the respiratory distress syndrome in infants»[187]
Richard K. Gershon[en] «For his elucidation of the role of subpopulations of lymphocytes in regulating the immune response»[188]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1987 Судзуми Тонегава «For his discovery that antibody diversity is produced by somatic recombination and mutation of genes»[189]
1982 Gilbert Ashwell[en] «For his contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms by which carbohydrate markers regulate the recognition and uptake of proteins by cells»[190]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1999 Гюнтер Блобел «For his contributions to our understanding of the ways in which newly-synthesized proteins are transported within cells»[191]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2000 Арвид Карлссон «For his contributions to our understanding of the role of amines, particularly dopamine, as neurotransmitters»[192]
Paul Janssen[en] «In recognition of his invention of haloperidol and related drugs useful in the treatment of mental illness»[193]
Manfred M. Mayer[de] «For his contributions to our understanding of the function of complement»[194]
1981 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1985 Майкл Стюарт Браун
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1985 Джозеф Леонард Голдстайн
«For their discovery of the role of receptor-mediated uptake of lipoproteins in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism»[195][196]
Wai Yiu Cheung[de]
Jerry H.-C. Wang[de]
«For their discovery of calmodulin»[197][198]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1984 Жорж Кёлер
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1984 Сезар Мильштейн
«In recognition of their application of a cell-fusion technique to form immortal cell lines which produce antibodies of a single specificity»[199][200]
Elizabeth F. Neufeld[en] «In recognition of her elucidation of the enzyme defects in some mucopolysaccharide storage diseases»[201]
Saul Roseman[de] «In recognition of his pioneering studies on the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, on their role in cell-cell interactions, and on the transport of sugars into cells»[202]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1982 Бенгт Самуэльсон «For his identification of thromboxanes and leukotrienes, and for his elucidation of their mechanism of action»[203]
1980 Нобелевская премия по химии — 1980 Пол Берг «In recognition of his contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms of protein synthesis and of the interplay of viral and cellular genes in regulating growth and division»[204]
Irving B. Fritz[de] «For his discovery of the role of carnitine in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism»[205]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1968 Хар Гобинд Корана «For the chemical synthesis of a functional gene»[206]
Efraim Racker[en] «For his contributions to our knowledge of energy metabolism in cells and of transport in biological membranes»[207]
Jesse Roth[en] «For the elucidation of mechanisms through which insulin and other peptide hormones interact with cells and of the ways in which these interactions are altered in disease states»[208]
Михаэль Села «For his fundamental contribution to our understanding of the molecular basis of immunogenicity»[209]
1979 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1988 Джеймс Уайт Блэк «In recognition of his role in the identification of amine receptors and in the development of the receptor-blocking drugs, Propranolol and Cimetidine»[210]
George F. Cahill Jr.[en] «In recognition of his contributions to our understanding of the interrelationships of hormones and body fuels in differing nutritional states of man»[211]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1980 Уолтер Гилберт «In recognition of his contributions to our understanding of gene replication and regulation, and of the development of methods for sequencing of DNA and their application to studies of gene organization»[212]
Elwood V. Jensen[en] «In recognition of his discovery of steroid receptors which has led to the elucidation of the action of steroid hormones and to the development of tests guiding endocrine treatment for cancer of the breast»[213]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1958Нобелевская премия по химии — 1980 Фредерик Сенгер «In recognition of his development of methods for the sequencing of DNA and of his contributions to new concepts of gene structure»[214]
Charles R. Scriver[en] «In recognition of his contribution to understanding of genetic disease and, in particular, the detection of genetically-determined disease in large population groups, and the development of treatment programs for these disorders»[215]
1978 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 2002 Сидней Бреннер «In recognition of his highly original and conceptual contributions to molecular biology, and to the understanding of how genetic information is read and translated»[216]
Жан-Пьер Шанжё «In recognition of his pioneering work in purifying and elucidating the mechanisms of the cholinergic receptor»[217]
Donald S. Fredrickson[en] «For his contributions to our understanding of the genetic, biochemical and clinical aspects of the hyperlipoproteinemias»[218]
Samuel O. Freedman[en]
Phil Gold[en]
«In recognition of their discovery of carcinoembryonic antigen, and for studies which elucidated its biological and clinical significance»[219][220]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1992 Эдвин Кребс «For elucidating fundamental biochemical mechanisms related to glycogen breakdown: pioneer work that has enhanced our knowledge of hormone action»[221]
Элизабет Миллер[de]
Джеймс Миллер[de]
«In recognition of their many important contributions to our understanding of how environmental chemicals, both naturally occurring and man made, induce cancer»[222][223]
Lars Terenius[de] «For his development of radioreceptor methods, their application to opiates and the detection of an endogenous opiate-like substance in the nervous system»[224]
1977 K. Frank Austen[de] «For his contributions to our understanding of the factors involved in the initiation, amplification and control of the inflammatory response»[225]
Cyril Clarke[en] «In recognition of his original and far-reaching contributions to the prevention of haemolytic disease of the newborn»[226]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1980 Жан Доссе «For recognition of the effects of histocompatibility antigens in humans, and his continuing leadership in the application of this knowledge to such diverse fields as transplantation immunology and the study of genetically determined diseases»[227]
Генри Джордж Фризен «In recognition of his contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and pathophysiology of lactogenic hormones and, in particular, for the identification of human prolactin»[228]
Victor A. McKusick[en] «In recognition of his many contributions to the development of the field of clinical genetics and his role in placing human genetics in the mainstream of clinical medicine»[229]
1976 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1979 Годфри Хаунсфилд «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the care of patients by the pioneer development of computerized tomography»[230]
Thomas R. Dawber[de]
William B. Kannel[en]
«For their careful epidemiologic studies, revealing risk factors in cardiovascular disease which have important implications for the prevention of these disorders»[231][232]
Eugene P. Kennedy[pl]Хорошая статья «For his elucidation of the biochemical pathways involved in triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis»[233]
George Klein[en] «For his contributions to our understanding of the biology of neoplastic cells and his distinguished work in tumour immunology»[234]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1980 Джордж Снелл «For his identification of the major histocompatibility complex in mice, and for establishing methods of study fundamental to immunogenetics»[235]
1975 Ernest Beutler[en] «For elucidating the biochemical and genetic basis of the hemolytic anemias related to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and other studies on human erythrocytes»[236]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1976 Барух Бламберг «In recognition of his discovery of the Australia antigen in 1963 and its association with hepatitis in 1967, greatly enhancing our knowledge of viral hepatitis type B, and its prevention»[237]
Генри Хэрс «For fundamental discoveries related to glycogen metabolism and its disorders, disorders of fructose metabolism and the lysosomal basis of several inborn errors of metabolism»[238]
Хью Хаксли «In recognition of outstanding contributions to our understanding of the molecular basis of muscle contraction»[239]
John D. Keith[de] «In recognition of his many and important contributions to our understanding of the natural history of congenital heart disease, which have formed the basis for the modern treatment of congenital heart malformations»[240]
William Thornton Mustard[en] «In recognition of his outstanding contributions in the area of cardiovascular surgery, in particular the achievement of the ingenious operation for the transposition of the great vessels, for which the operation now bears his name»[241]
1974 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1975 Дейвид Балтимор
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1975 Хоуард Темин
«For innovative and significant research on the mechanism of action of viruses in relation to tumor production»[242][243]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1977 Роже Гиймен
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1977 Эндрю Шалли
«For outstanding work on the identification, synthesis and clinical application of hypothalamic releasing hormones»[244][245]
Hector DeLuca[en] «For his elucidation of the metabolism of vitamin D»[246]
Hans J. Müller-Eberhard[en] «For his contributions to our understanding of the molecular basis of the complement system in man»[247]
Юда Герш Квостэл «In recognition of his many contributions during a long career in biochemical research»[248]
1973 Roscoe O. Brady[en] «For his work on the enzymology of complex lipids and his contribution to the management of lipid storage diseases»[249]
Denis Parsons Burkitt[en] «For his recognition, clinical description and brilliant epidemiological study of the unusual lymphoma in Africa which now bears his name»[250]
John Charnley[en] «For his scholarly contributions to the biomechanics and lubrication of joints and, in particular, for his development of a practical, low friction arthroplasty for arthritis of the hip»[251]
Kimishige Ishizaka[en]
Teruko Ishizaka[de]
«For the identification and characterization of the new immunoglobulin class, IgE, which has led to an increased understanding of allergic mechanisms»[252][253]
Harold E. Johns[en] «For his pioneer work in the development of cobalt and high energy radiotherapy and for his many contributions to education and research in the fields of clinical physics and biophysics»[254]
1972 Ruth Sanger[en]
Robert Russell Race[en]
«For their many important contributions to our knowledge of human blood groups, and for their brilliant application of this knowledge to problems in the fields of immunology, genetics, and clinical medicine»[255][256]
Олег Горникевич «For his elucidation of the biochemical lesion in Parkinson's disease, and his other contributions to our knowledge of the physiology of the brain»[257]
Britton Chance[en] «For his ingenuity in devising biophysical techniques for the observation of molecular events in living tissues, cells and organelles and for his unique imaginativeness in applying these techniques to bridge the gap between our knowledge of isolated enzymes and the phenomena of physiology and pharmacology»[258]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1982 Суне Бергстрём «In recognition of his contributions to the identification and chemical characterization of the prostaglandins, ubiquitous among mammalian tissues and having diverse biological activities»[259]
1971 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1977 Розалин Сасмен Ялоу
Соломон Берсон
«For their development of a reliable, specific and sensitive method for the assay of plasma insulin, and their subsequent application of the same principles in the measurement of other polypeptide substances»[260][261]
Donald F. Steiner[en] «In recognition of his discovery that insulin is derived from a larger precursor molecule, called pro-insulin - a model which may elucidate the biosynthesis of other active compounds»[262]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1958Нобелевская премия по химии — 1980 Фредерик Сенгер «For his contributions to the study of the structure of complex biochemical substances, and in particular for determining the precise chemical composition of insulin»[263]
Rachmiel Levine[de] «In recognition of his many contributions to the study of diabetes mellitus, and especially for his pioneer work on the site of action of insulin»[264]
Чарлз Герберт Бест «In recognition of his part in the discovery and development of insulin, and for many other contributions to medical research»[265]
1970 Vincent P. Dole[en] «In recognition of his pioneer contributions to our understanding of the metabolism of free fatty acid and adipose tissue, and more recently for the significant work he has done in establishing a valuable method of treating narcotic addiction with methadone»[266]
Ричард Долл «In recognition of his contributions to the methodology of medical research, and to the clarification of complex epidemiological problems»[267]
Robert A. Good[en] «In recognition of his many contributions to our understanding of host defense mechanisms»[268]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1984 Нильс Йерне «In recognition of his contributions to knowledge of the cellular basis of the immune response»[269]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1984 Роберт Брюс Меррифилд «In recognition of his work on the solid phase method for synthesis of polypeptides and of his application of this method in the first synthesis of an enzyme»[270]
1969 Frank J. Dixon[en] «In recognition of his outstanding contributions in immunology and immunopathology, particularly his investigations dealing with the elucidation of the pathogenesis of serum sickness and of experimental and human glomerulonephritis»[271]
John P. Merrill[en] «In recognition of his contribution to the field of nephrology and particularly his pioneer work in kidney transplantation which has led to its development as a practical form of treatment and has advanced our knowledge of immunologic mechanisms»[272]
Belding Hibbard Scribner[en] «For the concept of chronic intermittent hemodialysis; the arteriovenous cannulas which made it possible; his role in the development of "home" dialysis and continued basic and clinical investigation in his field»[273]
Robert B. Salter[en] «In recognition of his scientific contributions to an understanding of cartilage degeneration, epiphyseal necrosis, torsional deformation of bone and dysplasia of joints in relation to numerous musculoskeletal disorders, especially congenital dislocation of the hip»[274]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1971 Эрл Сазерленд «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the central role the adenylcyclase system plays in mediating many of the effects of hormones on metabolic processes»[275]
Ernest McCulloch[en]
James E. Till[en]
«In recognition of their development of the spleen colony technique for measuring the capacity of primitive normal and neoplastic cells to multiply and differentiate in the body»[276][277]
F. Mason Sones[en] «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the investigation and treatment of coronary artery disease and, in particular, for his introduction of the technique of selected coronary arteriography which has permitted radiographic visualization of individual obstruction as an objective criterion of the need for revascularization of the myocardium»[278]
1968 J. Edwin Seegmiller[en] «For his elucidation of a number of inborn errors of metabolism and, in particular, for his discovery of an enzyme defect (phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency) in a neurological disease characterized by mental retardation, behavioural disturbances and over-production of uric acid»[279]
Jacques Oudin[de] «In recognition of his contributions to immunochemistry through his analysis of antigen-antibody reactions in gelled media, and of his discovery and elucidation of genetic variations in the structure of immunoglobulins»[280]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1988 Джордж Хитчингс «For his leadership in the development of metabolic inhibitors by systematic chemical modification of biologically important compounds»[281]
James Learmonth Gowans[en] «In recognition of his contributions to a better understanding of the fate of the lymphocyte and its function in immune reactions»[282]
Bruce Chown[en] «For his valuable contributions to the knowledge of human blood groups and particularly for his work on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of hemolytic disease of the new­born, and for his leadership and inspiration of investigators concerned with clinical immunohematology»[283]
1967 James Fraser Mustard[en] «In recognition of his outstanding contributions in the fields of thrombosis and artherosclerosis, particularly his investigation of platelet economy, function, and metabolism, which have pointed to a relationship between thrombosis and artherosclerosis, and specifically for his classical experimental flow model demonstrating sites of thrombus accumulation, for the demonstration of platelet phagocytosis, and for the elucidation of factors affecting platelet aggregation»[284]
Peter J. Moloney[de] «In recognition of a long and distinguished career marked by many important contributions to immunology and diabetes»[285]
Iain MacIntyre[de] «In recognition of his important contributions in the field of mineral metabolism, and in particular for his studies of the physiology of calcitonin, and for his elucidation of numerous aspects of magnesium metabolism in experimental animals and man»[286]
D. Harold Copp[en] «In recognition of his important contributions to the problems of calcium homeostasis, particularly his demonstration of the existence of a new hormone "calcitonin" which directly alters blood calcium levels and also his confirmation that the source of the hormone is the ultimobranchial glands»[287]
Sidney Udenfriend[en]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1970 Джулиус Аксельрод
«In recognition of his wide-ranging and fundamental discoveries in relation to the chemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism and pharmacology of biogenic amines, especially the catecholamines»[288][289]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1974 Джордж Паладе «In recognition of his many contributions to the development of methods of preparing cells and tissues so that subcellular components could be adequately preserved and visualized in the electron microscope, and to his pioneering use of these methods to develop knowledge about structure and function of cellular components»[290]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1968 Маршалл Ниренберг «In recognition of his contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms of protein synthesis»[291]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1974 Кристиан Рене де Дюв «For the discovery of Iysosomes»[292]
1966 Jan G. Waldenström[en] «In recognition of his contributions to our knowledge of certain metabolic disorders and in particular for his clarification of the serum protein abnormalities in multiple myeloma and in essential macroglobulinaemia»[293]
Жак Миллер «In recognition of his fundamental contributions to our understanding of the role of the thymus in the development of normal immunological mechanisms in early life, and in their maintenance in the adult, and for the stimulus which his studies of the thymus gave to the rapidly developing field of immunobiology»[294]
Нобелевская премия по химии — 1970 Луис Федерико Лелуар «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the field of carbohydrate chemistry and metabolism and, in particular, for his discovery of the sugar nucleotides and their fundamental reactions in the biosynthesis of disaccharides and polysaccharides»[295]
Виллем Йохан Колфф «In recognition of his early work on the development of an artificial kidney, which has in recent years contributed to the prolongation of life of many patients suffering from renal failure, and has made it practical to consider the use of kidney transplants»[296]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1966 Чарлз Брентон Хаггинс «In recognition of his pioneer work in the treatment of cancer with hormonal substances, and his use of a chemical means of monitoring the response in carcinoma of the prostate»[297]
Geoffrey S. Dawes[en] «For his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the physiological behaviour and biochemical changes occurring in the foetus in utero, and in particular for his clarification of the adjustments that occur at birth during the changeover to extra-uterine life»[298]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1972 Родни Портер «In recognition of his outstanding achievements in the field of immunochemistry»[299]
1965 Frederick Horace Smirk[en] «In recognition of his total contribution to our understanding of the causes and treatment of hypertension and in particular for his clinical evaluation of nerve-blocking drugs in the treatment of high blood pressure»[300]
Daniel J. McCarty[de] «In recognition of his contributions in the field of rheumatology and in particular for his demonstration that crystals of uric acid and calcium in the fluids in and about the joints are ingested by leukocytes which then release a substance which causes an inflammatory reaction»[301]
Charles Philippe Leblond[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cellular biology by developing the technique of autoradiography with which he has studied the functioning of the thyroid gland and the rate of cell growth and renewal in various tissues of the body»[302]
Charles Enrique Dent[en] «In recognition of his contributions in the field of human metabolism and his role as the first to apply the technique of paper chromatography to the isolation and identification of substances in the blood and body fluids of patients, a technique which has revolutionized investigation of a number of genetic disorders involving amino acids and other substances»[303]
Robin Coombs[en] «In recognition of his contributions in the development of serological techniques and in particular for the test he introduced to detect the presence of Rh antibodies on red blood cells»[304]
Джером Конн «In recognition of his contributions in the field of endocrinology and in particular for his investigations establishing the clinical significance of aldosterone, a hormone of the adrenal cortex, in various types of hypertension and edema; also in recognition of his studies in the use of oral medications for the control of diabetes»[305]
1964 Keith R. Porter[en] «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of cellular biology and, in particular, for his development and application of sophisticated techniques of electron microscopy resulting in his early demonstration of many important features of the fine structure of cells, including the endoplasmic reticulum»[306]
Donald Walter Gordon Murray[en] «In recognition of his important contributions to the knowledge of cardiac physiology and pathology, and the development of several important techniques in cardiac surgery, and especially for his scientific courage in the pursuit of knowledge of clinical significance in many fields of medicine and surgery»[307]
Ivan Roitt[en] «In recognition of his important contributions to the knowledge of immunology and, in particular, for the demonstration of the presence of thyroglobulin antibodies in the serum of patients with Hashimoto's disease, and the stimulation which his research has given to the developing concept and understanding of diseases of auto-immunity»[308]
Deborah Doniach[en] «In recognition of her important contributions to the knowledge of immunology and, in particular, for her demonstration of the presence of thyroglobulin antibodies in the serum of patients with Hashimoto's disease, and the stimulation which her research has given to the developing concept and understanding of diseases of auto-immunity»[309]
Karl H. Beyer[de] Jr. «In recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of pharmacology and the understanding of renal physiology and, in particular, for his painstaking research, perceptive observations and scientific leadership resulting in the discovery of uricosuric and improved diuretic drugs, which now bring relief to millions of sufferers from gout and gouty arthritis, and the edema associated with heart disease»[310]
Сеймур Бензер «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of genetics and molecular biology, and in particular for his elucidation of the fine structure of genes, which has made it possible to extend the limits of genetic resolution by relating genetic changes to chemical alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid, thus clarifying the chemical bases of heredity in determining the nature and properties of cells and viruses.»[311]
1963 Murray Barr[en] «In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of micro anatomy and human cytogenetics and, in particular, for his discovery of a technique for the specific identification of male and female cells, thus opening vast new areas for research into the normal and abnormal development of bodily structures, which have led to an improved understanding of several important congenital anomalies including some errors of sexual development and some forms of mental retardation»[312]
Eric Bywaters[en] «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of rheumatology and pediatrics and, in particular, for his painstaking delineations of the natural history of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and for his penetrating and critical descriptions of several other rheumatic syndromes, which have provided criteria for diagnosis and prognosis, establishing an improved basis for the treatment decisions which must be made on behalf of patients suffering from these diseases»[313]
Кларенс Уолтон Лиллехай «In recognition of his distinguished contribution to the knowledge of cardiac surgery and cardiac physiology and, in particular, for his pioneering contributions to open heart surgery before the development of pump oxygenators, his contributions to the improvement of the mechanical means of extra corporeal circulation, his early use of cardiac pace makers, and his practical and theoretical leadership in the development of successful surgical techniques for the correction of congenital and acquired heart defects»[314]
Pierre Grabar[de] «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of biochemistry and, in particular, for his contributions to immunohistochemistry, including the development of the immunoelectrophoretic technique, which has made possible the specific identification of many bodily proteins, thus opening important new avenues for research in diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, in which disordered immunological responses appear to be implicated»[315]
Irvine Page[en] «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of cardiac and vascular physiology, pharmacology, and endocrinology, and, in particular, for his persevering leadership in these fields, which in association with numerous colleagues has led to several discoveries of importance, notably the existence and synthesis of angiotensin, an important factor in the understanding and management of hypertension, and the existence of serotonin, which has laid the foundation for many advances in neuro chemistry»[316]
Jacques Genest[en] «In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of vascular physiology and, in particular, for his studies of the mechanism of hypertension, and especially for his demonstration that the increased secretion of aldosterone observed in many patients suffering from this disorder is stimulated by angiotensin»[317]
1962 Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1962 Фрэнсис Крик «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of molecular biology and genetics, including his inspiring investigations of the nucleic acids which have shown how genetic information can be impressed and stored in the germ cells of parents and be transmitted to succeeding generations, his studies of the molecular structure of collagen and especially his brilliant development of the 'coding' theory - a concept which explains the way in which information carried in the genes determines the amino acid sequence and therefore the structure and character of all the many different proteins which are continuously being synthesized by the living organism»[318]
Clarence Crafoord[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiology and especially for his leadership in the field of cardiac surgery, including his pioneer development of operations to correct coarctation of the aorta and patent ductus arteriosus»[319]
Albert Coons[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of pathology and immunology, and especially for his development of the fluorescent antibody technique which has cast new light on hypersensitivity reactions, and which has opened important new avenues for the study of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever and disseminated lupus erythematosus, in which these reactions may be involved»[320]
Stanley Sarnoff[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiac physiology and especially for his demonstration of the interrelated roles of the nervous system, hormones and heart size in the control of cardiac performance, thus establishing physiological principles which have assisted medical scientists to better understand the action of the heart in normal and diseased states»[321]
Henry Kunkel[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of medicine and especially for his serological, immunological and metabolic studies of protein molecules, which have increased the understanding of such diverse diseases as cirrhosis of the liver, multiple myeloma, arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and disseminated lupus erythematosus»[322]
1961 Джонас Келлгрен «In recognition of his many contributions to the knowledge of rheumatology and epidemiology and especially for his leadership in devising and executing scientific studies of the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, providing for greater understanding of the natural history of this disease, thus contributing to progressive improvements in methods for its diagnosis and treatment»[323]
Alexander B. Gutman[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of rheumatology and biochemistry, and especially for his achievements in elucidating the metabolic defects present in gout, and in demonstrating the action of certain drugs which increase the excretion of uric acid, thus leading to the present situation in which it is possible to exercise almost perfect control over attacks of acute gout and prevent gouty arthritis»[324]
Alan C. Burton[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiovascular physiology and especially for his achievements in applying the basic laws of physics to the peripheral and pulmonary circulations, thus providing scientific explanation of the factors governing the collapse, the opening up, and the size of blood vessels which has also brought about an improved understanding of the behaviour of blood vessels in health and disease»[325]
Russell Brock[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of the functional pathology, investigation and surgery of congenital and rheumatic heart disease and especially for his elucidation of the factors, both valvular and muscular, which may obstruct the flow of blood from either the right or the left side of the heart into the main arteries of the lungs and body, which has led to the rational surgical management of such obstructive diseases of the heart»[326]
Нобелевская премия по физиологии и медицине — 1970 Ульф Сванте фон Ойлер «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of the substances released at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system and especially for his recognition that noradrenaline was the most important substance and that it was present in significant amount in all body organs (including the heart) that have a sympathetic nerve supply»[327]
1960 Джон Хейшам Гиббон «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiology, and especially for his achievement in developing and using a heart-lung machine in the first successful surgical correction of a heart defect in a human patient, thus introducing new and practical means for prolonging life among persons with congenital and acquired heart defects»[328]
Arnold Rice Rich[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of pathology and immunology, and especially for his achievements in demonstrating the role of hypersensitivity in the production of certain tissue lesions, such as those found in various rheumatic and other diseases, thus introducing new methods for their further investigation»[329]
Karl Friedrich Meyer[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of physiology and pathology, and especially for his achievements in elucidating the chemical structure of the ground substance found in connective tissue, site of the inflammatory processes involved in the rheumatic diseases»[330]
John McMichael[de] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiology and clinical physiology and especially for his achievements in the early application of cardiac catheterization technique to the measurement of cardiac pressure and output, thus making an important contribution to the understanding of heart failure»[331]
William F. Hamilton[en] «In recognition of his many contributions to the knowledge of cardiac physiology, and especially for his achievement in developing the dye dilution technique for determining cardiac output, which has made possible many advances in the diagnosis and investigation of heart disease»[332]
Joshua Harold Burn[en] «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of pharmacology, cardiac-physiology and vaso-neurology, and especially for his achievements in elucidating the role of various drugs, noradrenaline and the sympathetic nervous system in the excitation and control of cardio-vascular disease»[333]
1959 Charles Ragan[de] «In recognition of his contribution to the knowledge of rheumatology and especially for achievement in introducing an agglutination test which has become a valuable investigative procedure in differentiation of rheumatoid arthritis from other rheumatic dis­eases, thus revealing a hitherto unknown avenue for the investigation of their origin»[334]
William D.M. Paton[en] «In recognition of his contribution to the knowledge of pharmacology and especially for meritorious achievement in introducing the methonium compounds, which have played a valuable role in the treatment of hypertension»[335]
Harry M. Rose[en] «In recognition of his contribution to the knowledge of rheumatology and especially for achievement in introducing an agglutination test which has become a valuable investigative procedure in differentiation of rheumatoid arthritis from other rheumatic dis­eases, thus revealing a hitherto unknown avenue for the investigation of their origin»[336]
Альфред Блейлок «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of medicine and especially for outstanding achievement in developing an operation for the treatment of congenital heart lesions, thus introducing a new era in cardiac surgery»[337]
Eleanor Zaimis[en] «In recognition of her contribution to the knowledge of pharmacology and especially for meritorious achievement in introducing the methonium compounds, which have played a valuable role in the treatment of hypertension»[338]
Уилфред Бигелоу «In recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of cardiology and especially for his achievement in developing the hypothermia method of open heart surgery»[339]

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  1. Гайрднера Международная премия / О. М. Бубнова // Большая российская энциклопедия : [в 35 т.] / гл. ред. Ю. С. Осипов. — М. : Большая Российская энциклопедия, 2004—.
  2. Garfield, Eugene (12 марта, 1990), "Who will win the Nobel Prize in Economics? Here's a forecast based on Citation Indicators.", Current Comments (no. 11): 3-7, <http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p083y1990.pdf>
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  4. Awardees - The Gairdner Foundation. The Gairdner Foundation. Проверено 7 марта 2009. Архивировано из первоисточника 9 апреля 2012.
  5. http://www.gairdner.org/content/yoshinori-ohsumi
  6. http://www.gairdner.org/content/shimon-sakaguchi
  7. http://www.gairdner.org/content/lynne-e-maquat
  8. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-n-hall
  9. http://www.gairdner.org/content/lewis-cantley
  10. http://www.gairdner.org/content/titia-de-lange
  11. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-allison
  12. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sir-ravinder-nath-maini
  13. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sir-marc-feldmann
  14. http://www.gairdner.org/content/napoleone-ferrara
  15. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harold-f-dvorak
  16. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sir-gregory-winter
  17. http://www.gairdner.org/content/stephen-joseph-elledge
  18. http://www.gairdner.org/content/daniel-w-bradley
  19. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harvey-j-alter
  20. https://www.ualberta.ca/medicine/news/2013/march/houghton
  21. http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/team-player-edmonton-scientist-turns-down-100000-baby-nobel-because-it-shut-out-colleagues
  22. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-rosbash
  23. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jeffrey-c-hall
  24. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-w-young
  25. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jeffrey-v-ravetch
  26. http://www.gairdner.org/content/thomas-m-jessell
  27. http://www.gairdner.org/content/adrian-peter-bird
  28. http://www.gairdner.org/content/aharon-razin
  29. http://www.gairdner.org/content/howard-cedar
  30. http://www.gairdner.org/content/shizuo-akira
  31. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jules-hoffmann
  32. http://www.gairdner.org/content/peter-j-ratcliffe
  33. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gregg-l-semenza
  34. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-g-kaelin
  35. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-catterall
  36. http://www.gairdner.org/content/pierre-chambon
  37. http://www.gairdner.org/content/peter-walter
  38. http://www.gairdner.org/content/kazutoshi-mori
  39. http://www.gairdner.org/content/lucy-shapiro
  40. http://www.gairdner.org/content/richard-losick
  41. http://www.gairdner.org/content/shinya-yamanaka
  42. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harald-zur-hausen
  43. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gary-ruvkun
  44. http://www.gairdner.org/content/victor-ambros
  45. http://www.gairdner.org/content/nahum-sonenberg
  46. http://www.gairdner.org/content/samuel-weiss
  47. http://www.gairdner.org/content/c-david-allis
  48. http://www.gairdner.org/content/kim-nasmyth
  49. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harry-f-noller
  50. http://www.gairdner.org/content/thomas-steitz
  51. http://www.gairdner.org/content/dennis-j-slamon
  52. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ralph-l-brinster
  53. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ronald-m-evans
  54. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alan-hall
  55. http://www.gairdner.org/content/thomas-d-pollard
  56. http://www.gairdner.org/content/joan-steitz
  57. http://www.gairdner.org/content/brenda-milner-0
  58. http://www.gairdner.org/content/endel-tulving
  59. http://www.gairdner.org/content/douglas-coleman
  60. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jeffrey-m-friedman
  61. http://www.gairdner.org/content/andrew-z-fire
  62. http://www.gairdner.org/content/craig-c-mello
  63. http://www.gairdner.org/content/seymour-benzer-0
  64. http://www.gairdner.org/content/r-john-ellis
  65. http://www.gairdner.org/content/f-ulrich-hartl
  66. http://www.gairdner.org/content/arthur-l-horwich
  67. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-sachs
  68. http://www.gairdner.org/content/richard-axel
  69. http://www.gairdner.org/content/linda-b-buck
  70. http://www.gairdner.org/content/wayne-hendrickson
  71. http://www.gairdner.org/content/seiji-ogawa
  72. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ralph-steinman
  73. http://www.gairdner.org/content/francis-s-collins-0
  74. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-d-watson
  75. http://www.gairdner.org/content/philip-p-green
  76. http://www.gairdner.org/content/eric-s-lander
  77. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-e-sulston-0
  78. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-h-waterston
  79. http://www.gairdner.org/content/maynard-v-olson
  80. http://www.gairdner.org/content/j-craig-venter
  81. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-s-waterman
  82. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jean-weissenbach
  83. http://www.gairdner.org/content/clay-armstrong
  84. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bertil-hille
  85. http://www.gairdner.org/content/roderick-mackinnon
  86. http://www.gairdner.org/content/marc-w-kirschner
  87. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-roeder
  88. http://www.gairdner.org/content/roger-d-kornberg
  89. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alain-r-m-townsend
  90. http://www.gairdner.org/content/emil-r-unanue
  91. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jack-hirsh
  92. http://www.gairdner.org/content/avram-hershko
  93. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alexander-j-varshavsky
  94. http://www.gairdner.org/content/h-robert-horvitz
  95. http://www.gairdner.org/content/andrew-h-wyllie
  96. http://www.gairdner.org/content/elizabeth-h-blackburn
  97. http://www.gairdner.org/content/carol-greider
  98. http://www.gairdner.org/content/giuseppe-attardi
  99. http://www.gairdner.org/content/walter-neupert
  100. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gottfried-schatz
  101. http://www.gairdner.org/content/corey-s-goodman
  102. http://www.gairdner.org/content/richard-o-hynes
  103. http://www.gairdner.org/content/erkki-ruoslahti
  104. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alfred-g-knudson
  105. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-s-langer
  106. http://www.gairdner.org/content/barry-j-marshall
  107. http://www.gairdner.org/content/janet-d-rowley
  108. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-e-rothman
  109. http://www.gairdner.org/content/randy-w-schekman
  110. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bruce-m-alberts
  111. http://www.gairdner.org/content/arthur-kornberg
  112. http://www.gairdner.org/content/roger-y-tsien
  113. http://www.gairdner.org/content/pamela-j-bjorkman
  114. http://www.gairdner.org/content/don-c-wiley
  115. http://www.gairdner.org/content/tony-hunter
  116. http://www.gairdner.org/content/anthony-j-pawson
  117. http://www.gairdner.org/content/donald-metcalf
  118. http://www.gairdner.org/content/mario-r-capecchi
  119. http://www.gairdner.org/content/oliver-smithies-0
  120. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alvan-r-feinstein
  121. http://www.gairdner.org/content/stanley-b-prusiner
  122. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michel-m-ter-pogossian
  123. http://www.gairdner.org/content/leland-h-hartwell
  124. http://www.gairdner.org/content/yoshio-masui
  125. http://www.gairdner.org/content/paul-m-nurse
  126. http://www.gairdner.org/content/richard-peto
  127. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bert-vogelstein
  128. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-weinberg
  129. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sydney-brenner-0
  130. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-e-sulston
  131. http://www.gairdner.org/content/m-judah-folkman
  132. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-f-furchgott
  133. http://www.gairdner.org/content/david-h-maclennan
  134. http://www.gairdner.org/content/kary-b-mullis
  135. http://www.gairdner.org/content/francis-s-collins
  136. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-r-riordan
  137. http://www.gairdner.org/content/lap-chee-tsui
  138. http://www.gairdner.org/content/victor-ling
  139. http://www.gairdner.org/content/oliver-smithies
  140. http://www.gairdner.org/content/edwin-m-southern
  141. http://www.gairdner.org/content/e-donnall-thomas
  142. http://www.gairdner.org/content/mark-m-davis
  143. http://www.gairdner.org/content/tak-w-mak
  144. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jean-marie-ghuysen
  145. http://www.gairdner.org/content/louis-m-kunkel
  146. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ronald-g-worton
  147. http://www.gairdner.org/content/erwin-neher
  148. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bert-sakmann
  149. http://www.gairdner.org/content/albert-j-aguayo
  150. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-berridge
  151. http://www.gairdner.org/content/yasutomi-nishizuka
  152. http://www.gairdner.org/content/thomas-r-cech
  153. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-epstein
  154. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-j-lefkowitz
  155. http://www.gairdner.org/content/rene-g-favaloro
  156. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-c-gallo
  157. http://www.gairdner.org/content/luc-montagnier
  158. http://www.gairdner.org/content/walter-j-gehring
  159. http://www.gairdner.org/content/edward-b-lewis
  160. http://www.gairdner.org/content/eric-r-kandel
  161. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-g-rossmann
  162. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jean-francois-borel
  163. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-e-darnell
  164. http://www.gairdner.org/content/phillip-sharp
  165. http://www.gairdner.org/content/adolfo-j-de-bold
  166. http://www.gairdner.org/content/t-geoffrey-flynn
  167. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harald-sonnenberg
  168. http://www.gairdner.org/content/peter-c-doherty
  169. http://www.gairdner.org/content/rolf-zinkernagel
  170. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-smith
  171. http://www.gairdner.org/content/stanley-cohen
  172. http://www.gairdner.org/content/paul-c-lauterbur
  173. http://www.gairdner.org/content/raymond-u-lemieux
  174. http://www.gairdner.org/content/mary-f-lyon
  175. http://www.gairdner.org/content/mark-ptashne
  176. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-yanofsky
  177. http://www.gairdner.org/content/j-michael-bishop
  178. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harold-e-varmus
  179. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alfred-g-gilman
  180. http://www.gairdner.org/content/martin-rodbell
  181. http://www.gairdner.org/content/yuet-wai-kan
  182. http://www.gairdner.org/content/kresimir-krnjevic
  183. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-l-noble
  184. http://www.gairdner.org/content/donald-henderson
  185. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bruce-n-ames
  186. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gerald-d-aurbach
  187. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-clements
  188. http://www.gairdner.org/content/richard-k-gershon
  189. http://www.gairdner.org/content/susumu-tonegawa
  190. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gilbert-ashwell
  191. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gunter-blobel
  192. http://www.gairdner.org/content/arvid-carlsson
  193. http://www.gairdner.org/content/paul-janssen
  194. http://www.gairdner.org/content/manfred-m-mayer
  195. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-s-brown
  196. http://www.gairdner.org/content/joseph-l-goldstein
  197. http://www.gairdner.org/content/wai-yiu-cheung
  198. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jerry-h-c-wang
  199. http://www.gairdner.org/content/georges-j-kohler
  200. http://www.gairdner.org/content/cesar-milstein
  201. http://www.gairdner.org/content/elizabeth-f-neufeld
  202. http://www.gairdner.org/content/saul-roseman
  203. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bengt-samuelsson
  204. http://www.gairdner.org/content/paul-berg
  205. http://www.gairdner.org/content/irving-b-fritz
  206. http://www.gairdner.org/content/h-gobind-khorana
  207. http://www.gairdner.org/content/efraim-racker
  208. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jesse-roth
  209. http://www.gairdner.org/content/michael-sela
  210. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-w-black
  211. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-f-cahill
  212. http://www.gairdner.org/content/walter-gilbert
  213. http://www.gairdner.org/content/elwood-v-jensen
  214. http://www.gairdner.org/content/frederick-sanger-0
  215. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-r-scriver
  216. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sydney-brenner
  217. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jean-pierre-changeux
  218. http://www.gairdner.org/content/donald-s-frederickson
  219. http://www.gairdner.org/content/samuel-o-freedman
  220. http://www.gairdner.org/content/phil-gold
  221. http://www.gairdner.org/content/edwin-g-krebs
  222. http://www.gairdner.org/content/elizabeth-c-miller
  223. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-miller
  224. http://www.gairdner.org/content/lars-terenius
  225. http://www.gairdner.org/content/k-frank-austen
  226. http://www.gairdner.org/content/cyril-clarke
  227. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jean-dausset
  228. http://www.gairdner.org/content/henry-g-friesen
  229. http://www.gairdner.org/content/victor-mckusick
  230. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sir-godfrey-n-hounsfield
  231. http://www.gairdner.org/content/thomas-r-dawber
  232. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-b-kannel
  233. http://www.gairdner.org/content/eugene-p-kennedy
  234. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-klein
  235. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-d-snell
  236. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ernest-beutler
  237. http://www.gairdner.org/content/baruch-s-blumberg
  238. http://www.gairdner.org/content/henri-g-hers
  239. http://www.gairdner.org/content/hugh-e-huxley
  240. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-d-keith
  241. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-t-mustard
  242. http://www.gairdner.org/content/david-baltimore
  243. http://www.gairdner.org/content/howard-m-temin
  244. http://www.gairdner.org/content/roger-guillemin
  245. http://www.gairdner.org/content/andrew-v-schally
  246. http://www.gairdner.org/content/hector-f-deluca
  247. http://www.gairdner.org/content/hans-j-muller-eberhard
  248. http://www.gairdner.org/content/judah-h-quastel
  249. http://www.gairdner.org/content/roscoe-o-brady
  250. http://www.gairdner.org/content/denis-p-burkitt
  251. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-charnley
  252. http://www.gairdner.org/content/kimishige-ishizaka
  253. http://www.gairdner.org/content/teruko-ishizaka
  254. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harold-e-johns
  255. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ruth-sanger
  256. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-r-race
  257. http://www.gairdner.org/content/oleh-hornykiewicz
  258. http://www.gairdner.org/content/britton-chance
  259. http://www.gairdner.org/content/karl-sd-bergstrom
  260. http://www.gairdner.org/content/rosalyn-s-yalow
  261. http://www.gairdner.org/content/solomon-berson
  262. http://www.gairdner.org/content/donald-f-steiner
  263. http://www.gairdner.org/content/frederick-sanger
  264. http://www.gairdner.org/content/rachmiel-levine
  265. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-h-best
  266. http://www.gairdner.org/content/vincent-p-dole
  267. http://www.gairdner.org/content/w-richard-s-doll
  268. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-good
  269. http://www.gairdner.org/content/niels-k-jerne
  270. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-b-merrifield
  271. http://www.gairdner.org/content/frank-j-dixon
  272. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-p-merrill
  273. http://www.gairdner.org/content/belding-h-scribner
  274. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robert-b-salter
  275. http://www.gairdner.org/content/earl-w-sutherland
  276. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ernest-mcculloch
  277. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-e-till
  278. http://www.gairdner.org/content/f-mason-sones
  279. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jedwin-seegmiller
  280. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jacques-oudin
  281. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-h-hitchings
  282. http://www.gairdner.org/content/james-l-gowans
  283. http://www.gairdner.org/content/bruce-chown
  284. http://www.gairdner.org/content/j-fraser-mustard
  285. http://www.gairdner.org/content/peter-j-moloney
  286. http://www.gairdner.org/content/iain-macintyre
  287. http://www.gairdner.org/content/d-harold-copp
  288. http://www.gairdner.org/content/sidney-udenfriend
  289. http://www.gairdner.org/content/julius-axelrod
  290. http://www.gairdner.org/content/george-e-palade
  291. http://www.gairdner.org/content/marshall-w-nirenberg
  292. http://www.gairdner.org/content/christian-deduve
  293. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jan-waldenstrom
  294. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jacques-fap-miller
  295. http://www.gairdner.org/content/luis-f-leloir
  296. http://www.gairdner.org/content/willem-j-kolff
  297. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-huggins
  298. http://www.gairdner.org/content/geoffrey-s-dawes
  299. http://www.gairdner.org/content/rodney-r-porter
  300. http://www.gairdner.org/content/f-horace-smirk
  301. http://www.gairdner.org/content/daniel-j-mccarty
  302. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-p-leblond
  303. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-e-dent
  304. http://www.gairdner.org/content/robin-r-coombs
  305. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jerome-w-conn
  306. http://www.gairdner.org/content/keith-r-porter
  307. http://www.gairdner.org/content/gordon-dw-murray
  308. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ivan-m-roitt
  309. http://www.gairdner.org/content/deborah-doniach
  310. http://www.gairdner.org/content/karl-h-beyer
  311. http://www.gairdner.org/content/seymour-benzer
  312. http://www.gairdner.org/content/murray-l-barr
  313. http://www.gairdner.org/content/eric-gl-bywaters
  314. http://www.gairdner.org/content/c-walton-lillehei
  315. http://www.gairdner.org/content/pierre-grabar
  316. http://www.gairdner.org/content/irvine-h-page
  317. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jacques-genest
  318. http://www.gairdner.org/content/francis-hc-crick
  319. http://www.gairdner.org/content/clarence-crafoord
  320. http://www.gairdner.org/content/albert-h-coons
  321. http://www.gairdner.org/content/stanley-j-sarnoff
  322. http://www.gairdner.org/content/henry-g-kunkel
  323. http://www.gairdner.org/content/jonas-h-kellgren
  324. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alexander-b-gutman
  325. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alan-c-burton
  326. http://www.gairdner.org/content/russell-brock
  327. http://www.gairdner.org/content/ulf-s-von-euler
  328. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-h-gibbon
  329. http://www.gairdner.org/content/arnold-r-rich
  330. http://www.gairdner.org/content/karl-meyer
  331. http://www.gairdner.org/content/john-mcmichael
  332. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-f-hamilton
  333. http://www.gairdner.org/content/joshua-h-burn
  334. http://www.gairdner.org/content/charles-ragan
  335. http://www.gairdner.org/content/william-dm-paton
  336. http://www.gairdner.org/content/harry-m-rose
  337. http://www.gairdner.org/content/alfred-blalock
  338. http://www.gairdner.org/content/eleanor-zaimis
  339. http://www.gairdner.org/content/wilfred-g-bigelow

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