Список приходов Луизианы

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Американский штат Луизиана подразделяется на 64 прихода (англ. parishes, фр. paroisses) подобно тому, как 48 других штатов подразделяются на округа. Другим подобным исключением является Аляска, которая вместо округов подразделяется на боро и районы переписи.

41 приход управляется советом, называемым полицейским жюри. Оставшиеся 23 прихода имеют различные формы самоуправления, среди которых: президентский совет, управляющий совет, комиссия прихода и объединение прихода/города.

История[править | править вики-текст]

Луизиана была образована из частей испанской и французской колоний, в которых католицизм имел статус официальной религии. Местное колониальное правительство использовало деление, основанное на церковных приходах (фр. paroisse; исп. parroquia).

Вслед за Луизианской покупкой 1803 года, местный законодательный совет разделил Орлеанскую территорию (предшественника штата Луизиана) на 12 округов. Границы этих округов были обозначены недостаточно ясно и примерно совпали с границами колониальных приходов, поэтому и получили те же названия.[1]

31 марта 1807 года законодательная власть территории создала 19 приходов, при этом не упразднив старые округа (которые продолжали существовать до 1845 года).[2] В 1811 году состоялся конституционный съезд, предваряющий вхождение Луизианы в Союз.[3] На нем новообразованный штат был поделен на семь судебных районов, каждый из которых состоял из группы приходов. На первой официальной карте штата 1816 года использовалось слово приход, как и в конституции 1845 года. С тех пор основные гражданские административные единицы Луизианы называются приходами.

Перечень приходов[править | править вики-текст]

Приход FIPS[4] Центр прихода[5] Дата основания[5] Образован из Этимология[6] Население[5] Площадь (кв. миль)[5] Карта
Acadia 001 Crowley 1886 from part of St. Landry Parish. Назван в честь населявших данную область акадийцев. 61773 658 Map of Louisiana highlighting Acadia Parish.svg


Allen 003 Oberlin 1912 from part of Calcasieu Parish. Henry Watkins Allen, губернатор Луизианы времен Конфедерации 25764 766 Map of Louisiana highlighting Allen Parish.svg


Ascension 005 Дональдсвилль 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. По названию Католической церкви Вознесения (англ. ascension) Господня в Дональдсвилле, Луизиана 107215 303 Map of Louisiana highlighting Ascension Parish.svg


Assumption 007 Наполеонвилль 1807 Один из 19 первоначальных приходов. По названию старейшей в штате Римско-католической церкви Взятия Пресвятой Девы Марии в небесную славу (англ. Assumption) 23421 364 Map of Louisiana highlighting Assumption Parish.svg


Avoyelles 009 Marksville 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. The Avoyel Native American people 42073 866 Map of Louisiana highlighting Avoyelles Parish.svg


Beauregard 011 DeRidder 1912 from part of Calcasieu Parish. Confederate general P. G. T. Beauregard 35654 1166 Map of Louisiana highlighting Beauregard Parish.svg


Bienville 013 Arcadia 1848 from part of Claiborne Parish. Named after the founder of the city of New Orleans, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 14353 822 Map of Louisiana highlighting Bienville Parish.svg


Bossier 015 Benton 1843 from part Claiborne Parish. U.S. Representative Pierre Bossier 116979 867 Map of Louisiana highlighting Bossier Parish.svg


Caddo 017 Shreveport 1838 from part of Natchitoches Parish. Named for the Caddo Native American people 254969 937 Map of Louisiana highlighting Caddo Parish.svg


Calcasieu 019 Lake Charles 1840 from part of St. Landry Parish. Calcasieu, meaning crying eagle, is said to be the name of an Atakapa Native American leader 192768 1094 Map of Louisiana highlighting Calcasieu Parish.svg


Caldwell 021 Columbia 1838 from part of Catahoula Parish and Ouachita Parish. Named for the Caldwell family, which owned a large plantation and remains politically active in the state. 10132 541 Map of Louisiana highlighting Caldwell Parish.svg


Cameron 023 Cameron 1870 from parts of Calcasieu Parish and Vermilion Parish. U.S. Secretary of War Simon Cameron 6839 1932 Map of Louisiana highlighting Cameron Parish.svg


Catahoula 025 Harrisonburg 1808 from parts of Ouachita Parish and Rapides Parish. Catahoula Lake, formerly within the parish's boundaries and named from a Taensa word meaning big, clear lake 10407 739 Map of Louisiana highlighting Catahoula Parish.svg


Claiborne 027 Homer 1828 from part of Natchitoches Parish. Governor of Louisiana William C. C. Claiborne 17195 768 Map of Louisiana highlighting Claiborne Parish.svg


Concordia 029 Vidalia 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Name is of uncertain origin; may be from an early land grant called New Concordia, from the "concord" reached by local authorities over a mutual surrender of slaves or for a mansion called Concord which was owned by Spanish Governor Manuel Gayoso de Lemos 20822 749 Map of Louisiana highlighting Concordia Parish.svg


De Soto 031 Mansfield 1843 from parts of Caddo Parish and Natchitoches Parish. Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto 26656 895 Map of Louisiana highlighting DeSoto Parish.svg


East Baton Rouge 033 Baton Rouge 1810 from West Florida territory. French phrase bâton rouge meaning red stick. A red stick was used by local Native Americans to mark the boundaries between tribal territories 440171 471 Map of Louisiana highlighting East Baton Rouge Parish.svg


East Carroll 035 Lake Providence 1877 when Carroll Parish was divided. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence 7759 442 Map of Louisiana highlighting East Carroll Parish.svg


East Feliciana 037 Clinton 1824 when Feliciana Parish was divided. Felicite de Gálvez, the wife of Bernardo de Gálvez, a Spanish governor of Louisiana (New Spain) 20267 456 Map of Louisiana highlighting East Feliciana Parish.svg


Evangeline 039 Ville Platte 1910 from part of St. Landry Parish. Acadian heroine of the poem "Evangeline" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 33984 680 Map of Louisiana highlighting Evangeline Parish.svg


Franklin 041 Winnsboro 1843 from parts of Carroll Parish, Catahoula Parish, Madison Parish and Ouachita Parish Founding Father Benjamin Franklin 20767 636 Map of Louisiana highlighting Franklin Parish.svg


Grant 043 Colfax 1869 from parts of Rapides Parish and Winn Parish. U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant 22309 664 Map of Louisiana highlighting Grant Parish.svg


Iberia 045 New Iberia 1868 from parts of St. Martin Parish and St. Mary Parish. Назван испанскими переселенцами в честь Иберийского полуострова 73240 1031 Map of Louisiana highlighting Iberia Parish.svg


Iberville 047 Plaquemine 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, the brother of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville 33387 653 Map of Louisiana highlighting Iberville Parish.svg


Jackson 049 Jonesboro 1845 from parts of Claiborne Parish, Ouachita Parish and Union Parish U.S. President Andrew Jackson 16274 580 Map of Louisiana highlighting Jackson Parish.svg


Jefferson 051 Gretna 1825 from part of Orleans Parish Founding Father Thomas Jefferson 432552 642 Map of Louisiana highlighting Jefferson Parish.svg


Jefferson Davis 053 Jennings 1912 from part of Calcasieu Parish. Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America 31594 659 Map of Louisiana highlighting Jefferson Davis Parish.svg


Lafayette 055 Lafayette 1823 from part of St. Martin Parish. French-born American Revolutionary War hero, the Marquis de Lafayette 221578 270 Map of Louisiana highlighting Lafayette Parish.svg


Lafourche 057 Thibodaux 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Was named Interior Parish until 1812 and Lafourche Interior Parish until 1853. French phrase la fourche or in English, the fork; Bayou Lafourche, or Fork Bayou, is a fork of the Mississippi River 96318 1472 Map of Louisiana highlighting Lafourche Parish.svg


La Salle 059 Jena 1910 from west half of Catahoula Parish. Explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle 14890 663 Map of Louisiana highlighting LaSalle Parish.svg


Lincoln 061 Ruston 1873 from parts of Bienville Parish, Claiborne Parish, Jackson Parish and Union Parish. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln 46735 472 Map of Louisiana highlighting Lincoln Parish.svg


Livingston 063 Livingston 1832 from part of St. Helena Parish. U.S. Secretary of State Edward Livingston, brother of Robert R. Livingston who negotiated the Louisiana Purchase 128026 703 Map of Louisiana highlighting Livingston Parish.svg


Madison 065 Tallulah 1838 from Concordia Parish. U.S. President James Madison 12093 651 Map of Louisiana highlighting Madison Parish.svg


Morehouse 067 Bastrop 1844 from parts of Carroll Parish and Ouachita Parish. Abraham Morehouse, who led the first settlers into the region 27979 805 Map of Louisiana highlighting Morehouse Parish.svg


Natchitoches 069 Natchitoches 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. The Natchitoches Native American people 39566 1299 Map of Louisiana highlighting Natchitoches Parish.svg


Orleans 071 New Orleans 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Today coterminous with the City of New Orleans. Named after the Duke of Orléans, the regent of France 343829 350 Map of Louisiana highlighting Orleans Parish.svg


Ouachita 073 Monroe 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. The Ouachita Native American people 153720 633 Map of Louisiana highlighting Ouachita Parish.svg


Plaquemines 075 Pointe a la Hache 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. A word meaning persimmons created from the Louisiana Creole French and the Atakapa language 23042 2429 Map of Louisiana highlighting Plaquemines Parish.svg


Pointe Coupee 077 New Roads 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. French phrase la pointe coupée or in English, the cut-off point, which refers to a bend in the Mississippi River 22802 591 Map of Louisiana highlighting Pointe Coupee Parish.svg


Rapides 079 Alexandria 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Named for local river rapids (French: rapides) 131613 1362 Map of Louisiana highlighting Rapides Parish.svg


Red River 081 Coushatta 1871 from parts of Bienville Parish, Bossier Parish, Caddo Parish and Natchitoches Parish. Named for the Red River, which is part of the Mississippi River watershed 9091 402 Map of Louisiana highlighting Red River Parish.svg


Richland 083 Rayville 1868 from parts of Carroll Parish, Franklin Parish, Morehouse Parish and Ouachita Parish. Named for its rich land 20725 564 Map of Louisiana highlighting Richland Parish.svg


Sabine 085 Many 1843 from parts of Caddo Parish and Natchitoches Parish. Named for the Sabine River and the so-called Sabine Free State 24233 1012 Map of Louisiana highlighting Sabine Parish.svg


Saint Bernard 087 Chalmette 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint Bernard, patron saint of Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish governor who granted land to the Canary Islanders settling the area in 1778 35897 1794 Map of Louisiana highlighting St. Bernard Parish.svg


Saint Charles 089 Hahnville 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint Charles 52780 410 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Charles Parish.svg


Saint Helena 091 Greensburg 1810 from West Florida territory. Saint Helena 11203 409 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Helena Parish.svg


Saint James 093 Convent 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint James 22102 258 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint James Parish.svg


Saint John the Baptist 095 Edgard 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint John the Baptist 45924 348 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint John the Baptist Parish.svg


Saint Landry 097 Opelousas 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint Landry 83384 939 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Landry Parish.svg


Saint Martin 099 Saint Martinville 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Saint Martin 52160 817 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Martin Parish.svg


Saint Mary 101 Franklin 1811 from part of St. Martin Parish. Saint Mary. 54650 612 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Mary Parish.svg


Saint Tammany 103 Covington 1810 from West Florida territory. Legendary Indian Chief Tamanend. 233740 1124 Map of Louisiana highlighting Saint Tammany Parish.svg


Tangipahoa 105 Amite 1869 from parts of Livingston Parish, St. Helena Parish, St. Tammany Parish and Washington Parish. Comes from an Acolapissa word meaning ear of corn or those who gather corn 121097 823 Map of Louisiana highlighting Tangipahoa Parish.svg


Tensas 107 Saint Joseph 1843 from part of Concordia Parish. The Taensa Native American people. 5066 641 Map of Louisiana highlighting Tensas Parish.svg


Terrebonne 109 Houma 1822 from part of Lafourche Interior Parish. French phrase terre bonne or in English, good earth 111860 2080 Map of Louisiana highlighting Terrebonne Parish.svg


Union 111 Farmerville 1839 from part of Ouachita Parish. Named for the union of states which make up the U.S. 22721 905 Map of Louisiana highlighting Union Parish.svg


Vermilion 113 Abbeville 1844 from part of Lafayette Parish. Both the Vermilion River and Vermilion Bay 57999 1538 Map of Louisiana highlighting Vermilion Parish.svg


Vernon 115 Leesville 1871 from parts of Natchitoches Parish, Rapides Parish and Sabine Parish. Mount Vernon, the home of George Washington, the first U.S. President 52334 1341 Map of Louisiana highlighting Vernon Parish.svg


Washington 117 Franklinton 1819 from part of St. Tammany Parish. U.S. President George Washington 47168 676 Map of Louisiana highlighting Washington Parish.svg


Webster 119 Minden 1871 from parts of Bienville Parish, Bossier Parish and Claiborne Parish. U.S. statesman Daniel Webster 41207 615 Map of Louisiana highlighting Webster Parish.svg


West Baton Rouge 121 Port Allen 1807 One of the original 19 parishes. Was named Baton Rouge Parish until 1812. French phrase bâton rouge meaning red stick. A red stick was used by local Native Americans to mark the boundaries between tribal territories 23788 203 Map of Louisiana highlighting West Baton Rouge Parish.svg


West Carroll 123 Oak Grove, West Carroll Parish 1877 when Carroll Parish was divided. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence 11604 360 Map of Louisiana highlighting West Carroll Parish.svg


West Feliciana 125 Saint Francisville 1824 when Feliciana Parish was divided. Felicite de Gálvez, the wife of Bernardo de Gálvez, a Spanish governor of Louisiana (New Spain) 15625 1051 Map of Louisiana highlighting West Feliciana Parish.svg


Winn 127 Winnfield 1852 from parts of Catahoula Parish, Natchitoches Parish and Rapides Parish. Louisiana state legislator Walter Winn 15313 957 Map of Louisiana highlighting Winn Parish.svg


Примечания[править | править вики-текст]

  1. Tabor, B. Bryansite - Louisiana parishes.
  2. Louisiana Timeline - 1807.
  3. The Admission of Louisiana into the Union
  4. EPA County FIPS Code Listing. EPA.gov. Проверено 23 февраля 2008.
  5. 1 2 3 4 National Association of Counties. NACo - Find a county. Проверено 12 июня 2008. Архивировано 4 июня 2008 года.
  6. Louisiana Dept. of Public Health Parish Profiles