Список сигнатур файлов

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Это список сигнатур файлов, данных, используемых для идентификации или проверки содержимого файла. Эти сигнатуры также известны как магические числа.

Многие форматы файлов не предназначены для чтения как текст. Если такой файл будет просмотрен как текстовый файл, его содержимое будет невразумительно. Однако сигнатура файла может быть интерпретирована и показана как текст. В столбце ИСО 8859-1 указано, как расшифровывается сигнатура файла стандартной для UNIX-подобных операционных систем утилитой file при языковой кодировке ИСО 8859-1.

Расширение файла Описание Смещение ISO 8859-1 Шестнадцатиричная сигнатура
rpm RedHat Package Manager (RPM) package[1] 0
....
ed ab ee db
bin Amazon Kindle Update Package[2] 0
SP01
53 50 30 31
PIC

PIF
SEA
YTR

IBM Storyboard bitmap file

Windows Program Information File
Mac Stuffit Self-Extracting Archive
IRIS OCR data file

0
.
00
PDB PalmPilot Database/Document File 11
........
........
........
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
DBA Palm Desktop Calendar Archive 0
...
BE BA FE CA
DBA Palm Desktop To Do Archive 0
..BD
00 01 42 44
TDA Palm Desktop Calendar Archive 0
..DT
00 01 44 54
Palm Desktop Data File (Access format) 0
...
00 01 00 00
ico Computer icon encoded in ICO file format[3] 0
....
00 00 01 00
3gp

3g2

3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP and 3GPP2 multimedia files 4
ftyp 3g
66 74 79 70 33 67
z

tar.z

compressed file (often tar zip)

using Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm

0
..
1F 9D
z

tar.z

Compressed file (often tar zip)

using LZH algorithm

0
..
1F A0
bac File or tape containing a backup done with AmiBack on an Amiga.

It typically is paired with an index file (idx) with the table of contents.

0
BACKMIKE
DISK
42 41 43 4B 4D 49 4B 45
44 49 53 4B
bz2 Compressed file using Bzip2 algorithm 0
BZh
42 5A 68
gif Image file encoded in the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)[4] 0
GIF87a
GIF89a
47 49 46 38 37 61
47 49 46 38 39 61
tif

tiff

Tagged Image File Format 0
II*.
MM.*
49 49 2A 00
(little endian format)
4D 4D 00 2A
(big endian format)
cr2 Canon RAW Format Version 2[5]

Canon’s RAW format is based on the TIFF file format[6]

0
II*.....
CR
49 49 2A 00 10 00 00 00
43 52
cin Kodak Cineon image 0
.*_.
80 2A 5F D7
Compressed file using Rob Northen Compression (version 1 and 2) algorithm 0
RNC.
52 4E 43 01
52 4E 43 02
dpx SMPTE DPX image 0
SDPX
XPDS
53 44 50 58
(big endian format)
58 50 44 53
(little endian format)
exr OpenEXR image 0
v/1.
76 2F 31 01
bpg Better Portable Graphics format[7] 0
BPGû
42 50 47 FB
jpg

jpeg

JPEG raw or in the JFIF or Exif file format 0
ÿØÿÛ

ÿØÿà ..J
F IF..
ÿØÿá ..E
x if..
FF D8 FF DB

FF D8 FF E0 ?? ?? 4A 46 49 46 00 01
FF D8 FF E1 ?? ?? 45 78 69 66 00 00
ilbm

lbm
ibm
iff

IFF Interleaved Bitmap Image 0

any

FORM....
ILBM
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 49 4C 42 4D
8svx

8sv
svx
snd
iff

IFF 8-Bit Sampled Voice 0

any

FORM....
8SVX
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 38 53 56 58
acbm

iff

Amiga Contiguous Bitmap 0

any

FORM....
ACBM
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 41 43 42 4D
anbm

iff

IFF Animated Bitmap 0

any

FORM....
ANBM
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 41 4E 42 4D
anim

iff

IFF CEL Animation 0

any

FORM....
ANIM
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 
41 4E 49 4D
faxx

fax
iff

IFF Facsimile Image 0

any

FORM....
FAXX
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 46 41 58 58
ftxt

txt
iff

IFF Formatted Text 0

any

FORM....
FTXT
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 46 54 58 54
smus

smu
mus
iff

IFF Simple Musical Score 0

any

FORM....
SMUS
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 53 4D 55 53
cmus

mus
iff

IFF Musical Score 0

any

FORM....
CMUS
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 43 4D 55 53
yuvn

yuv
iff

IFF YUV Image 0

any

FORM....
YUVN
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 59 55 56 4E
iff Amiga Fantavision Movie 0

any

FORM....
FANT
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 46 41 4E 54
aiff

aif
aifc
snd
iff

Audio Interchange File Format 0

any

FORM....
AIFF
46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 41 49 46 46
idx Index file to a file or tape containing a backup done with AmiBack on an Amiga. 0
INDX
49 4E 44 58
lz lzip compressed file 0
LZIP
4C 5A 49 50
exe DOS MZ executable file format and its descendants (including NE and PE) 0
MZ
4D 5A
zip

jar
odt
ods
odp
docx
xlsx
pptx
vsdx
apk
aar

zip file format and formats based on it, such as JAR, ODF, OOXML 0
PK..
50 4B 03 04

50 4B 05 06
(empty archive)
50 4B 07 08
(spanned archive)
rar RAR archive version 1.50 onwards[8] 0
Rar!...

52 61 72 21 1A 07 00
rar RAR archive version 5.0 onwards[9] 0
Rar!....
52 61 72 21 1A 07 01 00
elf Executable and Linkable Format 0
.ELF
7F 45 4C 46
png Image encoded in the Portable Network Graphics format[10] 0
.PNG....
89 50 4E 47 0D 0A 1A 0A
class Java class file, Mach-O Fat Binary 0
Êþº¾
CA FE BA BE
UTF-8 encoded Unicode byte order mark, commonly seen in text files. 0

EF BB BF
Mach-O binary (32-bit) 0

0x1000

........
FE ED FA CE
Mach-O binary (64-bit) 0

0x1000

........
FE ED FA CF
Mach-O binary (reverse byte ordering scheme, 32-bit)[11] 0
........
CE FA ED FE
Mach-O binary (reverse byte ordering scheme, 64-bit) 0
........
CF FA ED FE
Byte-order mark for text file encoded in little-endian 16-bit Unicode Transfer Format 0
..
FF FE
Byte-order mark for text file encoded in little-endian 32-bit Unicode Transfer Format 0
....
FF FE 00 00
ps PostScript document 0
%!PS
25 21 50 53
pdf PDF document 0
%PDF
25 50 44 46
asf

wma
wmv

Advanced Systems Format[12] 0
0&²u.fÏ
.¦Ù.ª.bÎl
30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11
A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C
System Deployment Image, a disk image format used by Microsoft 0
$SDI0001
24 53 44 49 30 30 30 31
ogg

oga
ogv

Ogg, an open source media container format 0
OggS
4F 67 67 53
psd Photoshop Document file, Adobe Photoshop’s native file format 0
8BPS
38 42 50 53
wav Waveform Audio File Format 0
RIFF....
WAVE
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ?? 57 41 56 45
avi Audio Video Interleave video format 0
RIFF....
AVI.
52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ?? 41 56 49 20
mp3 MPEG-1 Layer 3 file without an ID3 tag or with an ID3v1 tag (which’s appended at the end of the file) 0
ÿû
FF FB
mp3 MP3 file with an ID3v2 container 0
ID3
49 44 33
bmp

dib

BMP file, a bitmap format used mostly in the Windows world 0
BM
42 4D
iso ISO9660 CD/DVD image file[13] 0x8001

0x8801 0x9001

CD001
43 44 30 30 31
fits Flexible Image Transport System (FITS)[14] 0
SIMPLE  
=       
        
     T
53 49 4D 50 4C 45 20 20
3D 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
20 20 20 20 20 54
flac Free Lossless Audio Codec[15] 0
fLaC
66 4C 61 43
mid

midi

MIDI sound file[16] 0
MThd
4D 54 68 64
doc

xls
ppt
msg

Compound File Binary Format, a container format used for document by older versions of Microsoft Office.[17] It is however an open format used by other programs as well. 0
D0 CF 11 E0 A1 B1 1A E1
dex Dalvik Executable 0
dex.035.
64 65 78 0A 30 33 35 00
vmdk VMDK files[18][19] 0
KDM
4B 44 4D
crx Google Chrome extension[20] or packaged app[21] 0
Cr24
43 72 32 34
fh8 FreeHand 8 document[22][23][24] 0
AGD3
41 47 44 33
cwk AppleWorks 5 document 0
....BOBO
........
....
05 07 00 00 42 4F 42 4F
05 07 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 01
cwk AppleWorks 6 document 0
....BOBO
........
....
06 07 E1 00 42 4F 42 4F
06 07 E1 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 01
toast Roxio Toast disc image file, also some .dmg-files begin with same bytes 0
ER....
ãER....
45 52 02 00 00 00
8B 45 52 02 00 00 00
dmg Apple Disk Image file 0
x.s.bb`
78 01 73 0D 62 62 60
xar eXtensible ARchive format[25] 0
xar!
78 61 72 21
dat Windows Files And Settings Transfer Repository[26]

See also USMT 3.0 (Win XP)[27] and USMT 4.0 (Win 7)[28] User Guides

0
PMOCCMOC
50 4D 4F 43 43 4D 4F 43
nes Nintendo Entertainment System ROM file[29] 0
NES
4E 45 53 1A
tar tar archive[30] 0x101
ustar.00
ustar  .
75 73 74 61 72 00 30 30
75 73 74 61 72 20 20 00
tox Open source portable voxel file[31] 0
TOX
74 6F 78 33
MLV Magic Lantern Video file[32] 0
MLVI
4D 4C 56 49
Windows Update Binary Delta Compression[33] 0
DCM PA30
44 43 4D 01 50 41 33 30
7z 7-Zip File Format 0
7z¼¯'
37 7A BC AF 27 1C
gz

tar.gz

[rfc:1952 GZIP] 0
..
1F 8B
lz4 LZ4 Frame Format[34]

Remark: LZ4 block format does not offer any magic bytes.[35]

0
."M.
04 22 4D 18
cab Microsoft Cabinet file 0
MSCF
4D 53 43 46
Various. (Replacing the last character of the original file extension with an underscore, e.g. setup.exe becomes setup.ex_) Microsoft compressed file in Quantum format, used prior to Windows XP. File can be decompressed using Extract.exe or Expand.exe distributed with earlier versions of Windows. 0
SZDD....
53 5A 44 44 88 F0 27 33
flif Free Lossless Image Format 0
FLIF
46 4C 49 46
mkv

mka
mks
mk3d
webm

Matroska media container, including WebM 0
.Eߣ
1A 45 DF A3
stg «SEAN : Session Analysis» Training file. Also used in compatible software «Rpw : Rowperfect for Windows» and «RP3W : ROWPERFECT3 for Windows». 0
MIL 
4D 49 4C 20
djvu

djv

DjVu document

The following byte is either 55 (U) for single-page or 4D (M) for multi-page documents.

0
AT&TFORM....DJV
41 54 26 54 46 4F 52 4D ?? ?? ?? ?? 44 4A 56
der DER encoded X.509 certificate 0
0.
30 82
dcm DICOM Medical File Format 0x80
DICM
44 49 43 4D
woff WOFF File Format 1.0 0
wOFF
77 4F 46 46
woff2 WOFF File Format 2.0 0
wOF2
77 4F 46 32
XML eXtensible Markup Language when using the ASCII character encoding 0
<?xml 
3c 3f 78 6d 6c 20
wasm WebAssembly binary format[36] 0
\0asm
6d 73 61 00
lep Lepton compressed JPEG image[37] 0 cf 84 01
swf flash .swf 0 .CWS

EWS

43 57 53
46 57 53
deb linux deb file 0 !<arch>.
21 3C 61 72 63 68 3E
webp Google WebP image file 0 RIFF….

WEBP

52 49 46 46 ?? ?? ?? ?? 57 45 42 50
U-Boot / uImage. Das U-Boot Universal Boot Loader.[38] 0
'..V
27 05 19 56
rtf Rich Text Format 0
{\rtf1
7B 5C 72 74 66 31
Microsoft Tape Format 0
TAPE
54 41 50 45
ts

tsv

tsa

MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-2 Part 1) 0

0xBC

0x178

(every 188th byte)

G
47
m2p

vob

MPEG Program Stream (MPEG-1 Part 1 (essentially identical) and MPEG-2 Part 1) 0
....
00 00 01 BA
mpg

mpeg

MPEG Program Stream

MPEG Transport Stream

MPEG-1 video and MPEG-2 video (MPEG-1 Part 2 and MPEG-2 Part 2)

0
....
G
....
00 00 01 BA
47
00 00 01 B3
zlib

No Compression/low

Default Compression

Best Compression

0
....
78 01
78 9C
78 DA
dat Minecraft Level Data File 1 ‹�
1F 8B 08 00
lzfse LZFSE — Lempel-Ziv style data compression algorithm using Finite State Entropy coding. (bvx2)

https://github.com/lzfse/lzfse

0 -
62 76 78 32
orc Apache ORC (Optimized Row Columnar) file format 0
ORC
4F 52 43
avro Apache Avro binary file format 0
Obj.
4F 62 6A 01
rc RCFile columnar file format 0
SEQ6
53 45 51 36
Apache Parquet columnar file format 0
PAR1
50 41 52 31

См. также[править | править код]

Примечания[править | править код]

  1. A. Format of the RPM file. Дата обращения 15 февраля 2017. (недоступная ссылка)
  2. GitHub - NiLuJe/KindleTool: Tool for creating/extracting Kindle updates and more. Дата обращения 15 февраля 2017.
  3. Icons (at MSDN)
  4. GRAPHICS INTERCHANGE FORMAT(sm) Version 89a
  5. Computer Knowledge File Extension .CR2 Details. filext.com.
  6. Inside the Canon RAW format version 2, understanding .CR2 file format and files produced by Canon EOS Digital Camera. free.fr.
  7. Bellard, Fabrice BPG Image format (2015).
  8. TechNote.txt: RAR version 4.00 — Technical information. 2010-12-01. «The marker block is actually considered as a fixed byte sequence: 0x52 0x61 0x72 0x21 0x1a 0x07 0x00»
  9. RAR 5.0 archive format. Дата обращения 1 мая 2013.
  10. RFC 2083 - PNG (Portable Network Graphics) Specification Version 1.0. ietf.org.
  11. Mac Developer Library. apple.com.
  12. ASF (Advanced Systems Format).
  13. Gary C. Kessler File Signatures Table (2012-10-21.04.2020). Дата обращения 2012-12-28.04.2020.
  14. Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), Version 3.0 - File type signifiers (26 сентября 2012). Дата обращения 2013-1-24.04.2020.
  15. Josh Coalson FLAC — format. — «"fLaC", the FLAC stream marker in ASCII, meaning byte 0 of the stream is 0x66, followed by 0x4C 0x61 0x43». Дата обращения 2013-04-04.04.2020.
  16. File Signature Database: mid File Signatures. filesignatures.net.
  17. Developing a tool to recognise MS Office file types ( .doc, .xls, .mdb, .ppt ) (недоступная ссылка). social.msdn.microsoft.com. Дата обращения 14 декабря 2017. Архивировано 9 августа 2014 года.
  18. What Files Make Up a Virtual Machine?. vmware.com.
  19. http://www.vmware.com/app/vmdk/?src=vmdk
  20. CRX Package Format. chrome.com.
  21. CRX Package Format. chrome.com.
  22. [Pythonmac-SIG Discovering file type]. python.org.
  23. Tim Fisher FH8 File - What It Is & How To Open One. About.com Tech.
  24. Google Groups. google.com.
  25. xar - xarformat.wiki. code.google.com.
  26. Easily Restore Your Computer With File and Settings Transfer Wizard XP (Part 1). howtogeek.com.
  27. User State Migration Tool 3.0. microsoft.com. Microsoft.
  28. User State Migration Tool 4.0 User's Guide. microsoft.com. Microsoft.
  29. NESRomTool::NES ROM Quickstart. sadistech.com.
  30. GNU tar 1.28: Basic Tar Format. gnu.org.
  31. UVOX Universal Voxel Translator - Man Page (недоступная ссылка). tox.land. Дата обращения 14 декабря 2017. Архивировано 8 мая 2016 года.
  32. RAW Format v2.0 - Google Sheets. google.com.
  33. Using Binary Delta Compression (BDC) Technology to Update Windows Operating Systems (недоступная ссылка). Microsoft (10 June 2005). Дата обращения 15 марта 2015. Архивировано 1 августа 2015 года.
  34. Collet, Yann LZ4 Frame format. github.com.
  35. Collet, Yann LZ4 Block Format. github.com.
  36. WebAssembly/design. GitHub. Дата обращения 1 ноября 2016.
  37. Lepton image compression: saving 22% losslessly from images at 15MB/s. Dropbox.
  38. How to Extract an uImage (недоступная ссылка). Дата обращения 24 февраля 2017. Архивировано 25 февраля 2017 года.

Ссылки[править | править код]