Бойня у Радонича: различия между версиями

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{{Косовская война}}
'''Бо́йня у Радонича''' ({{lang-sq|Masakra e Liqeni i Radoniqit}}, {{lang-sr|Masakr na Radonjićkom Jezeru}}) — эпизод [[Косовская война|косовской войны]], в ходе которого членами [[Армия освобождения Косова|АОК]] под командованием [[Харадинай, Рамуш|Рамуша Харадиная]]<ref>[http://www.vreme.com/cms/view.php?id=613776 Vreme 901 — Ratni zlocini: U ime zakona Leke Dukadjina]</ref> была учинена расправа по меньшей мере над 34 [[Сербы в Косове|косовскими сербами]] и [[Албанцы|албанцами]]<ref>[https://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/kosovo/undword.htm Human Rights Watch report]</ref>. Эпизод произошёл [[9 сентября]] [[1998 год]]а<ref name="hrw.org"/> близ [[Радонич (водохранилище)|водохранилища Радонич]], недалеко от города {{нп3|Глоджане (Дечани)|Глоджане|sr|Глођане (Дечани)}} в [[Автономный край Косово и Метохия|Косово]].
 
== Предыстория ==
{{Planned}}
<!---
{{Location map | Kosovo
| width = 200
| float = right
| caption = Location of Lake Radonjić in Kosovo
| alt = Map of Kosovo with mark showing location of Lake Radonjić
| lat_deg = 42.4906
| lon_deg = 20.4167
}}
In 1990, Kosovo's autonomy within [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]] was revoked.{{sfn|Bethlehem|Weller|1997|p=xxii}} Soon after, the [[Kosovo Liberation Army]] (KLA) was formed to fight the Yugoslav establishment.<ref>"Unknown Albanian 'liberation army' claims attacks", Agence France Presse, February 17, 1996</ref> After a string of minor attacks, the KLA's mission became much more aggressive,<ref name="hlc-rdc.org">http://www.hlc-rdc.org/?p=13091</ref> which led to them claiming areas that were key to Serbia's fuel-supply, near the town of [[Orahovac]]. Years of ethnic tension had preceded the Kosovo War, and spilled into numerous atrocities on both sides.
 
In September 1998, the [[Army of Serbia and Montenegro|Yugoslav Army]] (VJ) and police captured a series of villages around [[Radonjić Lake|Lake Radonjić]] from the KLA beginning with [[Prilep, Kosovo|Prilep]], [[Irzniq]] and [[Glodjane]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#ind |title=ICTY Fourth Revised Indictment para. 45 |date=16 October 2007 | publisher=U.N. |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://articles.latimes.com/1998/sep/09/news/mn-21017 | title=New Serbian Offensive Said to be Underway | publisher=L.A. Times |date=9 September 1998 |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> KLA forces had grown stronger and tended to control villages away from the main roads while the Yugoslav military was positioned on the hills around Lake Radonjić.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment - para 148 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> Throughout the summer, Yugoslav forces shelled surrounding Albanian villages around Lake Radonjić from their position on the hills daily.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment - para 96 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> Meanwhile, the KLA launched increasingly bold attacks against Serbian targets and civilians. In September, the Yugoslav military moved through the villages around the lake in order to attack and expel the KLA. Colonel John Crosland, an [[England|English]] military officer attached to the VJ, witnessed this first hand and commented on the destruction caused by those forces.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ictytranscripts.org/trials/haradinaj/070523IT.htm | title= Public Testimony of John Crosland, transcript page 4666-4670 |date=23 May 2007 | publisher=U.N. | accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> He noted that he personally witnessed looting and burning of houses by Serbian forces and that the village of Prilep was razed to 18 inches about the ground.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ictytranscripts.org/trials/haradinaj/070523IT.htm | title= Public Testimony of John Crosland, transcript page 4666-4670 |date=23 May 2007 | publisher=U.N. | accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> He stated that the VJ, Serbian police forces and paramilitary police forces including MUP, PJP, SAJ, and JSO were involved in the offensive.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ictytranscripts.org/trials/haradinaj/070523IT.htm | title= Public Testimony of John Crosland, transcript page 4666-4670 |date=23 May 2007 | publisher=U.N. | accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
 
==Massacre==
After the offensive, approximately thirty bodies were discovered by a Serbian forensic team.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment - para 146 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> They were likely the victims of the KLA, among whom were Idriz Gashi, Martti Harsia, and Avni Krasniqi.<ref name="Heike Krieger 2001 38">{{cite book|author=Heike Krieger |title=The Kosovo conflict and international law: an analytical documentation 1974–1999 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-OhPTJn8ZWoC&pg=PA38 |accessdate=30 April 2011 |year=2001 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-80071-6 |pages=38–}}</ref> The corpses were then taken away from Glodjane, and were thrown into Lake Radonjić.<ref name="vreme.com"/><ref name="hlc-rdc.org"/> Serbian authorities, however, refused access to international forensic teams, despite the fact that [[Helena Ranta]], a famous international forensic expert, specifically requested access to the site <ref name="Human Rights Watch 1999">{{cite book |author=Human Rights Watch |title=A week of Terror in Drenica: Human Rights Violations in Kosovo |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ozTFV4ddD9cC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=serbian+forensic+team+glodjane&source=bl&ots=b4O-fDHyy-&sig=YQ0Nny5y8GYQrtlKHgzbJwQekQ0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WPgSUfm0D8qQqgHj3IDwDQ&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=serbian%20forensic%20team%20glodjane&f=false |accessdate=6 February 2013 |year=1999 |publisher= Human Rights Watch |isbn=1-56432-227-0}}</ref> Instead, the Serbian forensic team conducted the investigation themselves which caused [[Human Rights Watch]] to raise questions about the credibility of the evidence recovered.<ref name="Human Rights Watch 1999"/>
 
The thirty bodies found in the Lake Radonjić canal consisted of individuals of Serbian, Albanian and Roma ethnicity.<ref>http://balkanwitness.glypx.com/Racak-FET-summary2.htm</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Human Rights Watch |title= World Events 1999 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LdWZrfsdqAEC&pg=PA311&lpg=PA311&dq=glodjane+serbian+forensic+team&source=bl&ots=UGxUiykxRN&sig=Xd8vV2TAXF0YQU08QkgTkYLX6i8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IlMRUYeIPJLK9gTfvIH4CA&ved=0CFoQ6AEwBjgU#v=onepage&q=glodjane%20serbian%20forensic%20team&f=false |accessdate=5 February 2013}}</ref> The Trial Chamber of the [[International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia]] (ICTY) and forensic records showed that they had been killed over a period of six months from April to September 1998 during the beginning of the armed conflict in Kosovo.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#ind |title= fourth amended indictment |publisher=U.N. |date=16 October 2007 |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref><ref name="Trial Chamber Judgment">{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
 
== Aftermath ==
After talks between Yugoslavia and the West broke down at the Rambouillet peace accords,<ref name="bbc23mar99">{{cite news|title=Nato poised to strike|date=23 March 1999|publisher=[[BBC News]]|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/301900.stm}}</ref> [[NATO]] commenced a 78-day-long bombing campaign of Serbian military and infrastructure targets. Serb forces withdrew from Kosovo on 11 June 1999. [[Republic of Kosovo|Kosovo]] declared independence from [[Serbia]] on 17 February 2008. The declaration was met with mixed-responses from International Governments.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7249034.stm Kosovo MPs proclaim independence], BBC, 2008-02-17</ref>
 
The 30 to 37 bodies discovered were widely viewed as victims of the KLA and they formed the basis of the ICTY indictment of three ethnic Albanians. The ICTY Trial Chamber assessed the evidence discovered at Lake Radonjić canal in detail over a three-year trial.<ref name="Trial Chamber Judgment"/> It found that seven of the bodies from the Lake Radonjić canal were proven to have been killed by the KLA.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Summary Judgment page 4 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> These seven individuals were Zenun Gashi, Nurije Krasniqi, Istref Krasniqi, Sanije Balaj, and the mother and the two sisters of Witnesses 4 and 19.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Summary Judgment page 4 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
 
With respect to the other individuals, the court noted that some of the other individuals were likely killed by the KLA but cautioned jumping to conclusions because it had received evidence that some individuals could have been killed to settle old personal scores, or as the result of ordinary criminal behavior, or to further [[blood feud]]s in a region where law and order had broken down.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment para 234-235 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Summary Judgment page 4 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
 
The Court found that the evidence for the rest of the bodies found at the canal was problematic, as the evidence as to whom the perpetrators were was often non-existent .<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment para 152 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> The pattern of crimes suggested haphazard criminal behavior rather than organised KLA involvement.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment para 152 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
 
One forensic expert thought that some of the bodies found around the canal showed signs of having been moved to that location.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sense-agency.com/icty/prosecution-contests-findings-of-own-expert.29.html?cat_id=1&news_id=10518 |title=Prosecution contests findings of own expert | date= 19 September 2007 |publisher=sense tribunal |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.icty.org/x/cases/haradinaj/trans/en/071003IT.htm |title= Public testimony of Dominique Lecomte transcript page 8783 |date=3 October 2007 |publisher=U.N. |accessdate=13 February 2013}}</ref> The defence lawyers at the court argued that this was evidence that Serbian security forces had “planted many of these bodies near the canal in order to frame the KLA.”<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sense-agency.com/icty/how-did-the-bodies-get-to-radonjic-lake-canal.29.html?cat_id=1&news_id=10378 |title=How did the bodies get to Radonjic Lake? | date= 26 June 2007 |publisher=Sense Tribunal |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> Serb security forces had been caught moving bodies in Kosovo before.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sense-agency.com/icty/who-directed-refrigerated-trucks-from-kosovo.29.html?cat_id=1&news_id=10745 |title=Who Directed Refrigerated Trucks from Kosovo? | date= 12 February 2008 |publisher=Sense Tribunal |accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref> The Court rejected this argument and found that these bodies had legitimately been killed in the area during six months of armed conflict.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.icty.org/case/haradinaj/4#tjug |title= Trial Chamber Judgment para 150 |publisher=U.N. |date=3 April 2008|accessdate=6 February 2013}}</ref>
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== Примечания ==

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