Социалистическое государство

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Социалистическое государство, социалистическая республика или социалистическая страна  — суверенное государство, в конституции которого указана приверженность социализму.

В настоящее время к этим государствам и странам относятся Алжир[1], Бангладеш[2], Гайана[3], Индия[4], Непал[5], Никарагуа[6], Шри-Ланка[7], Танзания[8].

Идея социалистического государства проистекает из более широкого понятия государственного социализма, политической точки зрения, согласно которой рабочий класс должен использовать государственную власть и государственную политику для создания экономической системы на принципах социализма[9][10]. Большинство социалистических государств были созданы политическими партиями, придерживающимися марксизма-ленинизма или его национальных разновидностей, таких как маоизм, сталинизм или титоизм. Концепция социалистического государства считается ненужной или контрпродуктивной некоторыми классическими, либертарианскими и ортодоксальными марксистами, либертарианскими социалистами и другими социалистическими политическими мыслителями, которые рассматривают современное государство как побочный продукт капитализма[11][12][12].

Социалистическое государство следует отличать от многопартийной либеральной демократии, управляемой социалистической партией, где государство конституционно не связано со строительством социализма. В таких случаях политическая система не предназначена специально для строительства социализма. Политологи, как правило, проводят различие между авторитарными социалистическими и демократическими социалистическими государствами. Первые исторически представляли собой советский блок, а вторые — это страны западного блока, демократически управляемые социалистическими партиями, например Великобритания, Франция, Швеция и другие социал-демократические государства[13][14][15][16].

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Примечания[править | править код]

  1. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (28 November 1996): «Gathered in the national movement and later within the National Front of Liberation, the Algerian people have made great sacrifices to assume their collective destiny in the framework of recovered freedom and cultural identity and to build authentic people’s democratic constitutional institutions. The National Front of Liberation crowned the sacrifices of the best sons of Algeria during the people’s war of liberation with independence and built a modern and full sovereign State».
  2. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (4 November 1972): «Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process, a socialist society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedoms, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens».
  3. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana (20 February 1980): «Convinced that the organisation of the State and society on socialist principles is the only means of ensuring social and economic justice for all of the people of Guyana; and, therefore, being motivated and guided by the principles of socialism».
  4. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of India (26 November 1949): «We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens».
  5. Article 4, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (20 September 2015): «Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state».
  6. Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua (1 January 1987): «Liberty, justice, respect for the dignity of the human person, political and social pluralism, the recognition of the distinct identity of the indigenous peoples and those of African descent within the framework of a unitary and indivisible state, the recognition of different forms of property, free international cooperation and respect for the free self-determination of peoples, Christian values, socialist ideals, and practices based on solidarity, and the values and ideals of the Nicaraguan culture and identity, are the principles of the Nicaraguan nation. […] The socialist ideals promote the common good over individual egoism, seeking to create an ever more inclusive, just and fair society, promoting an economic democracy which redistributes national wealth and eliminates exploitation among human beings».
  7. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (7 September 1978): «[T]o constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy, and assuring to all peoples freedom, equality, justice, fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary».
  8. Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978): «The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy», Куба, Венесуэла, Китай и КНДР.
  9. Lenin, Vladimir (1917). The State and Revolution. «Chapter 5» Архивная копия от 27 ноября 2017 на Wayback Machine. Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  10. Lenin, Vladimir (1921). «The Tax in Kind» Архивная копия от 5 мая 2020 на Wayback Machine. Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  11. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. — Harper Perennial, 2008. — ISBN 978-0-06-156161-0.
  12. 1 2 An Anarchist FAQ. — Edinburgh : AK Press, 2012. — Vol. II. — ISBN 978-1-902593-90-6.
  13. Barrett, William, ed. (1 April 1978). «Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy: A Symposium» Архивная копия от 19 октября 2019 на Wayback Machine. Commentary. Retrieved 14 June 2020. «If we were to extend the definition of socialism to include Labor Britain or socialist Sweden, there would be no difficulty in refuting the connection between capitalism and democracy.»
  14. Heilbroner, Robert L. (Winter 1991). «From Sweden to Socialism: A Small Symposium on Big Questions» Архивная копия от 16 января 2022 на Wayback Machine. Dissident. Barkan, Joanne; Brand, Horst; Cohen, Mitchell; Coser, Lewis; Denitch, Bogdan; Fehèr, Ferenc; Heller, Agnès; Horvat, Branko; Tyler, Gus. pp. 96-110. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  15. Kendall, Diana (2011). Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials. Cengage Learning. pp. 125—127. ISBN 9781111305505. «Sweden, Great Britain, and France have mixed economies, sometimes referred to as democratic socialism—an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections. For example, government ownership in Sweden is limited primarily to railroads, mineral resources, a public bank, and liquor and tobacco operations.»
  16. Li, He (2015). Political Thought and China’s Transformation: Ideas Shaping Reform in Post-Mao China. Springer. pp. 60-69. ISBN 9781137427816. «The scholars in camp of democratic socialism believe that China should draw on the Sweden experience, which is suitable not only for the West but also for China. In the post-Mao China, the Chinese intellectuals are confronted with a variety of models. The liberals favor the American model and share the view that the Soviet model has become archaic and should be totally abandoned. Meanwhile, democratic socialism in Sweden provided an alternative model. Its sustained economic development and extensive welfare programs fascinated many. Numerous scholars within the democratic socialist camp argue that China should model itself politically and economically on Sweden, which is viewed as more genuinely socialist than China. There is a growing consensus among them that in the Nordic countries the welfare state has been extraordinarily successful in eliminating poverty.»