Даньцзя

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Даньцзя
Численность и ареал
Всего: 4,5 млн чел

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg КНР
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Гонконг
Flag of Macau.svg Макао

Flag of Vietnam.svg Вьетнам
Язык
Религия Китайская народная религия, буддизм Махаяны
Входит в ханьцы
Двое лодочников-танка в Гонконге

Даньцзя (танка[1], даньху, даньмин, даньжэнь[2], дан, дань, люди в лодках) — проживающий в Южном Китае[3] субэтнос ханьцев[4], возможно, мон-кхмерского происхождения[5]. Традиционно даньцзя проводили всю жизнь на лодках-джонках[1] в прибрежных районах Гуандуна, Гуанси, Фуцзяни (фучжоуские даньцзя), Хайнани, Чжэцзяна[6], Гонконга[7] и Макао. Небольшая часть даньцзя живёт во Вьетнаме, где их называют «дан» (đàn) и официально считают субэтносом народа нгай, состоящего из хакка, ле и собственно нгаев[8].

Империя Сун интенсивно колонизировала юго-восточный Китай ханьскими переселенцами, ассимилировавшими даньцзя[9]. Некоторые историки сравнивают этот народ с шэ, воспринявшими китайскую культуру обитателями Южного Китая[10]. Как и большинство гуандунцев, даньцзя говорят на кантонском диалекте[11][12].

В новейшее время многие из даньцзя переселились на берег[13].

Название[править | править код]

Даньцзя Гонконга, 1930

На литературном китайском языке путунхуа:

кант. трад. 蜑家, упр. 蜑家, йель: daan6ga1, кант.-рус.: та:нка, пиньинь: dànjiā, палл.: даньцзя[14].

Вариантная форма:

кант. трад. 疍家, упр. 疍家, йель: daan2ga1, кант.-рус.: та:нка, пиньинь: dànjiā, палл.: даньцзя[15][16].

Описательные названия:

кант. трад. 水上人, упр. 水上人, йель: seui2seung5yan4, кант.-рус.: сёйсёнъянь, пиньинь: shuǐshàng rén, палл.: шуйшанжэнь, буквально: «люди на воде»[17].
кант. трад. 南海人, упр. 南海人, йель: naam4hoi2yan4, кант.-рус.: на:мхойянь, пиньинь: Nán Hǎi rén, палл.: наньхайжэнь, буквально: «люди с южного моря»[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25].
«морские цыгане»[24].

Термин «танка» считается уничижительным[26]. Сами даньцзя называют себя китайцами-рыболовами[27].

Словосочетание «люди в лодках» (англ. boat people) используется для обозначения вьетнамцев-беженцев, даньцзя и хокло[en], последние два народа проводили на воде значительную часть своей жизни[28]. Однако хокло говорят на фуцзяньском диалекте, а даньцзя — на кантонском.

Образ жизни[править | править код]

Гонконгские «люди в лодках», 1970

Исторически даньцзя были изгоями, вытесненными с суши на воду[29][2]. Они промышляли ловлей рыбы и моллюсков, доставкой грузов[6] и пассажирскими перевозками[30][31], пиратством[4]. На лодках они устраивали небольшие алтари, куда ставили статуи богов, которым приносили подношения (самым почитаемым божеством даньцзя является Мацзу)[32].

Цинскими властями даньцзя были причислены к «подлому люду» (кит. трад. 賤民, упр. 贱民, пиньинь: jiànmín, палл.: цзяньминь)[33], им было запрещено селиться на берегу[34]. Император Юнчжэн уравнял их в правах с «добропорядочным народом» в 1723 году[35]. Также даньцзя было запрещено вступать в брак с кантонцами и хакка, даже если последние жили по соседству и тоже занимались рыболовством[36]. Им не позволяли участвовать в празднованиях других народов[37]. Даньцзя никогда не бинтовали женщинам ноги[36].

В Шанхае, одном из центров проституции, работало множество жительниц Южного Китая, причём кантонские проститутки обслуживали клиентов в обычных борделях, а даньцзя — в плавучих[38]. Также большое количество проституток-даньцзя было в городах дельты Жемчужной реки[36]. Даньцзя работали и в борделях для британцев[39] и других европейцев[40]. Кантонские женщины презирали даньцзя и обзывали их «солёными водяными девочками» (кант. трад. 鹹水妹, упр. 咸水妹, йель: haam4seui2mui6, кант.-рус.: ха:мсёймуй). Этот синоним слова «проститутка» произошёл от английского «handsome maid»[41][42]. Стереотип о том, что все даньцзя женского пола занимаются проституцией, приводил к ошибкам при подсчётах количества проституток в стране, так как всех женщин этого народа автоматически причисляли к представительницам «древнейшей профессии»[43][44]. Проститутки-даньцзя считались «низкими», жадными, грубыми и невежливыми[45], однако бордели, в которых они работали, славились чистотой и богатым убранством[46]. Иногда из низов даньцзя удавалось пробиться в проституцию высокого класса[47].

Отчёт британскому парламенту 1882 года содержал сведения о том, что даньцзя, формально считавшиеся «друзьями европейцев», зачастую фактически находились в рабстве у хозяев борделей[35][48].

У даньцзя часто бывает анемия Кули (талассемия)[49]. Также даньцзя чаще кантонцев и чаочжоусцев[en] страдают раком лёгких[50].

История[править | править код]

Происхождение[править | править код]

Британские источники утверждают, что даньцзя жили в Гонконге «с незапамятных времён»[18][51]. Энциклопедия «Американа» утверждает, что хокло и даньцзя обитают в Гонконге «с доисторических времён»[52][53][54]. Предков даньцзя вытеснили на воду китайские крестьяне, захватывавшие их земли со времён Сун[55].

В некоторых китайских легендах говорится о том, что предками варваров, включая даньцзя, были дикие звери[56][11]. В других мифологических источниках утверждается, что предками даньцзя были морские змеи, поэтому они якобы могут задерживать дыхание под водой на три дня[57].

Часть китайских учёных считает, что даньцзя — это отдельный народ, не имеющий с ханьцами ничего общего[58]. Китайские исторические хроники утверждают, что даньцзя — автохтонное население региона. Их считали юэсцами и делили на «рыболовов», «ловцов устриц» и «деревянных»[59][60].

Даньцзя Гонконга, 1946

Большинство европейских учёных поддерживает теорию о том, что предками даньцзя являются байюэ[12][61][11]. Другая теория заключается в том, что даньцзя восприняли культуру и образ жизни населявших Гонконг в неолит юэсцев[62]. Некоторые учёные считают, что даньцзя родственны другим народам Южного Китая, в частности, ли и яо[63]. Антрополог Сямэньского университета Линь Хуэйсян (кит. 林惠祥, пиньинь: Lín Huìxiáng) в своей диссертации утверждает, что гуандунские и фуцзяньские даньцзя происходят от байюэ, а также что они возможно являются предками малайцев[64]. Вольфрам Эберхард предполагает, что юэ родственны даньцзя, а китайская примесь появилась у последних из-за влияния китайской культуры и из-за того, что даньцзя занимались проституцией[65].

Согласно одной из теорий, даньцзя произошли от неассимилированных юэсцев, переживших китайское нашествие[66]. Не согласное с этой теорией меньшинство учёных считает, что у даньцзя не больше аборигенной крови, чем у обычных кантонских китайцев[12]. Другая теория заключается в том, что помимо юэсцев предками даньцзя являются и другие народы[67].

Китайские учёные считают даньцзя племенем яо, некоторые источники утверждают, что на Ланьтау жили «дань», а другие — что «яо». В газете 1729 года даньцзя описываются под именем «варваров из яо», причём отношение к ним было как к животным[68]. Китайский поэт Су Ши упоминал даньцзя[69]. Также даньцзя посвящена строка в стихотворении У Ли, где сказано, что этот народ снабжал рыбой португальцев в Макао[70].

В одном из выпусков издания Нанькайского университета 1936 года утверждается, что даньцзя были потомками местных жителей до ассимиляции китайцами[71]. Учёный Жак Герне писал, что даньцзя — коренной народ, мешавший династии Цин установить контроль над регионом[72].

Юджин Ньютон Андерсон в 1970 году утверждал, что данных для подтверждения любой из теорий о происхождении даньцзя нет[9]. Однако проведённые в 1970-х годах исследования ДНК даньцзя показали, что предками даньцзя были аборигены, а не ханьцы[49].

Гуандун, Гонконг и Макао[править | править код]

Даньцзя в Макао

Кантонцы издревле эксплуатировали даньцзя[73]. Во время британского колониального правления в Гонконге даньцзя считались отдельным от хокло, хакка и пунти народом[74]. Исторически эти три народа, говорившие на разных языках, воевали и презирали друг друга по крайней мере с периода поздней Цин, однако их объединила ненависть к даньцзя[75].

Даньцзя помогали британцам в военных операциях в Гонконге, за что считались их «друзьями»[39]. Британцы в благодарность открыли несколько учебных заведений специально для этого народа[76].

Португальцы, жившие в Макао, часто женились на женщинах из даньцзя, хотя китаянки (хань) отказывались от вступления в отношения с европейцами[77][78]. Даньцзя было запрещено вступать в браки с другими местными народами[79]. Любовным связям даньцзя и португальцев посвящено несколько литературных произведений, в частности «A-Chan, A Tancareira» авторства Энрике ди Сенна-Фернандеса[80][81]. Помимо этого, португальские пираты иногда брали в рабство детей даньцзя[82]. Смешанное азиатско-европейское население Макао почти полностью состояло из потомков даньцзя[83][84][85][42][86].

XX век[править | править код]

Из-за ассимиляции большинство даньцзя в XX веке считали себя китайцами[25].

В новейшее время, с 1970-х годов, количество даньцзя начало уменьшаться[87][88][89]. Одной из причин этого был тайфун 1962 года, уничтоживший множество лодок хокло и даньцзя[52][53][54].

Даньцзя отличают фамилии, причём у фучжоуских даньцзя фамилии отличаются от гуандунских[90].

Фамилии фучжоуских даньцзя Фамилии остальных даньцзя
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: yung1, кант.-рус.: юн, пиньинь: Wēng, палл.: вэн кант. трад. , упр. , йель: mak6, кант.-рус.: мак, пиньинь: Mài, палл.: май
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: ngau1, кант.-рус.: нгау, пиньинь: Ōu, палл.: оу кант. трад. , упр. , йель: buk6, кант.-рус.: пук, пиньинь: , палл.: пу
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: chi4, кант.-рус.: чхи, пиньинь: Chí, палл.: чи кант. трад. , упр. , йель: ng4, кант.-рус.: ын, пиньинь: , палл.: у
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: pou4, кант.-рус.: пхоу, пиньинь: , палл.: пу кант. трад. , упр. , йель: sou1, кант.-рус.: соу, пиньинь: , палл.: су
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: gong1, кант.-рус.: кон, пиньинь: Jiāng, палл.: цзян кант. трад. , упр. , йель: ho4, кант.-рус.: хо, пиньинь: , палл.: хэ
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: hoi2, кант.-рус.: хой, пиньинь: Hǎi, палл.: хай кант. трад. , упр. , йель: gu3, кант.-рус.: ку, пиньинь: , палл.: гу
кант. трад. , упр. , йель: jang1, кант.-рус.: чан, пиньинь: Zēng, палл.: чжэн

Примечания[править | править код]

  1. 1 2 Иванов, 1990, p. 9.
  2. 1 2 БСЭ, 1958.
  3. Jaschok, 1994, p. xvi.
  4. 1 2 Kleinen, 2010, p. 105.
  5. Типология, 1984, p. 49.
  6. 1 2 Яковлев, 1959, p. 28.
  7. ААС, 1988.
  8. Кхонг Зьен, 1984, p. 120.
  9. 1 2 Anderson, 1970, p. 15.
  10. Naquin, 1989.
  11. 1 2 3 Österreichische, 1970.
  12. 1 2 3 Anderson, 1970.
  13. Faure, 1995, p. 121.
  14. Lehner, 2011, p. 182.
  15. BKRS.
  16. 文學視界, 2014, p. 407.
  17. Osgood, 1975.
  18. 1 2 GB, 1962.
  19. NPL, 1962.
  20. HKYR, 1961.
  21. HKAR, 1962.
  22. HKGIS, 1960.
  23. Hürlimann, 1962.
  24. 1 2 Garrett, 1987.
  25. 1 2 FEER, 1958.
  26. Guldin, 1997.
  27. Eberhard, 1982, p. 1982.
  28. Hayes, 1996.
  29. ААС, 1988, p. 31.
  30. Perry, 1859.
  31. Ballou, 1858.
  32. Walker, 1875, p. 99—104.
  33. Williams, 1848, p. 321.
  34. Hansson, 1996, p. 119.
  35. 1 2 Correspondence, 1882, p. 55.
  36. 1 2 3 Гулик, 2000, p. 338.
  37. Faure, 1995.
  38. Han, 2005.
  39. 1 2 Andrew, 2006, p. 11.
  40. Jaschok, 1994, p. 237.
  41. Taiwandic.
  42. 1 2 Lethbridge, 1978, p. 75.
  43. EAH, 1993, p. 102.
  44. Ho, 2005, p. 228.
  45. Ho, 2005, p. 256.
  46. Ho, 2005, p. 249.
  47. Ejeas, 2001, p. 112.
  48. Lethbridge, 1978, p. 75, 210.
  49. 1 2 McFadzean, 1971, p. 59—62.
  50. Asiaweek, 1989.
  51. HKYR, 1970.
  52. 1 2 Americana, 1999.
  53. 1 2 Americana, 2006.
  54. 1 2 Americana, 1981.
  55. T'ien hsia monthly, 1940.
  56. Anderson, 1970, p. 13.
  57. Eberhard, 1982.
  58. Moser, 1985.
  59. Donkin, 1998.
  60. AOS, 1952.
  61. Anderson, 1972.
  62. Ingham, 2007.
  63. Chêng, 1948.
  64. Rubinstein, 2007.
  65. Eberhard, 1982, p. 89.
  66. Anderson, 1970, p. 14.
  67. 梁廣漢, 1980.
  68. Meacham, 2008.
  69. Watson, 1994.
  70. Chaves, 1993, p. 53—54, 141.
  71. Nankai, 1936.
  72. Gernet, 1996.
  73. Stokes, 2005, p. 141.
  74. MEA, 1996.
  75. Dye, 1997.
  76. HKRAS, 1980, p. 121.
  77. Pina-Cabral, 2002, p. 39.
  78. Pina-Cabral, 2002, p. 164—165.
  79. Whitney, 1891, p. 6180.
  80. Pina-Cabral, 2002, p. 164.
  81. Cheng, 1999, p. 170—173.
  82. Boxer, 1948, p. 224.
  83. Lee, 2004.
  84. Jaschok, 1994, p. 223.
  85. Siu, 2011, p. 305.
  86. Eitel, 1895, p. 169.
  87. Cranfield, 1984, p. 151.
  88. Knox, 1974, p. 86.
  89. Hye, 1980, p. 135.
  90. Hansson, 1996, p. 116—117.

Литература[править | править код]

  • В статье использован текст Eitel, Ernest John. Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882. — 1895., перешедший в общественное достояние.
  • В статье использован текст Whitney, William Dwight. The Century dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language, Part 21. — 1891., перешедший в общественное достояние.
  • В статье использован текст Whitney, William Dwight and Smith, Benjamin Eli. The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: The Century dictionary ... prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney ... rev. & enl. under the superintendence of Benjamin E. Smith. — 1911., перешедший в общественное достояние.
  • В статье использован текст Williams, Samuel Wells. The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants .... — 1848., перешедший в общественное достояние.
  • В статье использован текст Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, Catholic Foreign Mission Bureau of Boston. The Field afar, Volumes 15–16. — 1921., перешедший в общественное достояние.

На английском[править | править код]

  • ___. Asiaweek, Volume 15. — Asiaweek Ltd., 1989. — P. 90. — «Koo has found too that cancer rates differ among Hongkong's Chinese communities. Lung cancer is more prevalent among the Tanka, or boat people, than among local Cantonese. But they in turn have a higher incidence than Chiuchow (Teochew)».
  • ___. Ballou's monthly magazine, Volume 8. — Thomes & Talbot, 1858. — P. 514. — «quered, gilded and ornamented. In Simoda, they take the place of horses, the latter being used only under the saddle. The third engraving represents the dinner given on board the Powhatan, in honor of the commissioners appointed by the emperor to conduct negotiations. Commodore Perry invited the officers of the squadron to meet the Japanese officials, of whom there were about seventy. A very excellent dinner was served up, to which the guests did ample justice. Toasts to the emperor and president were drank with all the honors, and the company did not disperse until a very late hour.

Our next picture shows a Chinese tanka boat. The tanka boats are counted by thousands in the rivers and bays of China. They are often employed by our national vessels as conveyances to and. from the shore, thereby saving the health ot the sailors, who would be otherwise subjected to pulling long distances under a hot sun, with a liability ot contracting some fatal disease peculiar to China, and thus introducing infection in a crowded crew.

On her voyage, the Powhatan touched at Singapore, the capital of a small island at the southern extremity of Malacca. The town stands on a point of land near a bay, affording a safe anchorage at all seasons, and commanding the navigation of the Straits of Malacca. While the Powhatan lay at anchor here, the captain permitted two jugglers to come on board to gratify the wishes of the sailors, by exhibiting their skill in legerdemain, which art they profess in a wonderful degree of perfection. The feat of swallowing a sword was performed, as exhibited in our fifth engraving. But as the weapon belonged to the juggler, the men suspected it was prepared for the purpose, and that the blade consisted of running slides, which, by the pressure of the tongue to the point, would be forced into the hilt. The Malay, however, was determined to confound the doubters, and taking up a piece of rough cast iron from the armorer's forge, swallowed it with as much ease and facility as he did the sword. The performances ended with a lively dance executed by two cobras, to the accompaniment of harsh sounds from a trumpet played by an assistant.

From Singapore lev us pasS to the Sandwich Islands, those gems of the Pacific. The arrival at the Sandwich Islands is always a welcome event in a cruise—the delicious climate, the abundance of fruits, the romantic scenery, the gentle manners of the inhabitants, render this portion of the globe peculiarly attractive. Our sixth engraving represents a group of Sandwich Island girls dancing the hula-hula to the intense delight of a group of Jack tars, who probably experience as much satisfaction at the exhibition, as was ever experienced by the refined Parisians at the efforts of Taglioni, Cerito, or Fanny Ellsler. The hula-hula was formerly a favorite dance among the Sandwich Islands, but has now become nearly extinct through the influence of the missionaries. There are still, however, a few Kanakas, who are addicted to their old amusement. The dance does not admit of much grace, each female going through her gyrations with the mechanical stiffness of an automaton.

The next port we shall touch at, pleading the privilege of a roving commission, is Cape Town,

the capital of the Cape of Good Hope, the wellknown British colony at the Southern extremity of Africa. This point early attracted the attention of the Dutch, who saw that it was of the first importance as a watering-place for their ships. They accordingly established a colony there about the middle of the 17th century. They treated the native inhabitants, the Hottentots, with great severity, driving most of them beyond the mountains, and reducing the remainder to slavery. In 1795, it was captured by the English, but restored by the peace of Amiens, in 1802. In 1806, it was again captured by the English, and has remained in their possession since. It is defended by a castle of considerable strength, and contains many fine public buildings. The harbor is tolerably secure from September to May, during the prevalence of the southeast winds ; but during the rest of the year, when the winds blow from the north and northwest, vessels are obliged to resort to Fulse Bay, on the other side of the peninsula.

Our seventh engraving presents a sketch of a group of marketmen at Cape Town. We here see the native fish dealers and purchasers. A young negro in the foreground is feeding a pelican with a small fish which he has purloined from the bench. The principal market of Cape Town is not very attractive externally, but it is noted for the abundance and excellence of its fish, flesh and fowl, which supply the inhabitants and the ships touching at the port. The sales are conducted much after the manner of this country. The salesmen arc representatives of all quarters of the globe, and include specimens of the native Hottentot and the genuine Yankee, who is always found where money is to be made.

The eighth engraving is a view of the natives and their huts at St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar. The inhabitants of this remarkably fertile island are composed of two distinct classes—the Arabs, or descendants of foreign colonists, and the Negroes, or original inhabitants of the island. The character of the inhabitants differs much in the different parts of the island, and the accounts of writers vary greatly on this subject. The island is off the eastern coast of Africa, separated from the continent by the Mozambique channel, and is about 900 miles long and 200 broad. Its surface is greatly diversified, and its mountain scenery is exceedingly grand. The name and position of this island was first made known to Europeans by Marco Polo, in the 13th century, though the Arabs had been acquainted with it for several centuries. It was visited by the Portuguese in the beginning of the 16th century. The French made several attempts to found colonies there in the middle of the 17th century, but abandoned them after ineffectual struggles with the natives. In 1745, they renewed their efforts with but little better success. In 1814, it was claimed by England as a dependency of Mauritius, which had been ceded to her by France, and some settlements were established. One of the native kings of the interior, who had shown himself eager to procure a knowledge of European arts for his subjects, consented, in 1820, to relinquish the slave trade on condition that ten Madagassees should be sent to England, and ten to Mauritius, for education. Those sent to England were placed under the care of the».

  • ___. Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament). — reprint. — Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O., 1882.
  • ___. East Asian history, Volumes 5–6. — Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, 1993. — P. 102. — «Ethnic prejudice towards the Tanka (boatpeople) women persisted throughout the Republican period. These women continued to be mistaken for prostitutes, probably because most of those who peddled ferry services between Canton and».
  • ___. Ejeas, Volume 1. — Brill, 2001. — P. 112. — «A popular contemporary magazine which followed closely the news in the 'flower business' (huashi) so recorded at least one case of such career advancement that occurred to a Tanka (boat-people) prostitute in Canton.44 To say that all».
  • ___. Far Eastern economic review. — Review Pub. Co. Ltd., 1958. — P. 280. — «The name "Hoklo" is used by the Hoklo, but the Tanka will not use the name "Tanka" which they consider derogatory, using instead "Nam hoi yan" or "Sui seung yan". Shore dwellers however have few dealings with either race of people and tend to call them both "Tanka". (…) Historically there can be little doubt that the boat-people and a few of the hill villagers are of non-Chinese origin, but all now regard themselves as Chinese and speak Chinese dialects, the only traces of aboriginal descent (apart)».
  • ___. Middle East and Africa. — Taylor & Francis, 1996. — P. 358. — «When the British appropriated the territory in the nineteenth century, they found these three major ethnic groups—Punti, Hakka, and Tanka—and one minority, the Hoklo, who were sea-nomads from the northern shore of Guangdong…». — ISBN 1-884964-04-4.
  • American Oriental Society. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 72. — American Oriental Society., 1952. — Vol. Volume 40 of American oriental series. — P. 164. — «oyster-Tan, and the wood-Tan, excelling at the gathering of fish, oysters and timber respectively».
  • Hansson, Anders. Chinese outcasts: discrimination and emancipation in late imperial China. — BRILL, 1996. — Vol. Volume 37 of Sinica Leidensia. — ISBN 90-04-10596-4.
  • Eugene Newton Anderson. The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. — American Anthropological Association, 1970. — Vol. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. — P. 13. — «into two major groups: Cantonese ("Tanchia" or "Tanka" – a term of hatred) and Hoklo. The Hoklo speak a distinctive dialect of South Fukienese (South Min, Swatowese) (…) The most widely accepted theory of the origins of these people is that they are derived from the aboriginal tribes of the area. Most scholars (Eberhard, 1942; Lo, 1955, 1963; Ho, 1965; and others influenced by them) have agreed that the (…) and boat people are such as one would expect between groups leading such different ways of life. in culture, the boat people are Chinese. Ward (1965) and McCoy (1965) point out that the land people are probably not free from aboriginal intermixture themselves, and conclude that the boat people are probably not more mixed. As Ward states, "(l)... the boat-people's descent is probably neither more nor less 'non-Han' than that of most other Cantonese-speaking inhabitants of Kwangtung. (…) meant little more than "Barbarian." the Yueh seem to have included quite civilized peoples and also wild hill tribes. The Chinese drove them south or assimilated them. One group maintained its identity, according to the theory, and became the boat people. Ho concludes that the word Tan originally covered a specific tribe, then was extended like Man further north to cover various groups. At first it referred to the Patung Tan people, then to the Lingnan Tan, i.e. (…) Neither theory for the origin of the boat people has much proof. Neither would stand up in court. Chen's conclusion is still valid today: "...to what tribe or race they once belonged or were once akin to is still unknown." (Chen, 1935:272)».
  • Eugene Newton Anderson. Essays on south China's boat people. — Orient Cultural Service, 1972. — Vol. Volume 29 of Asian folklore and social life monographs Dong fang wen cong. — P. 2. — «Most scholars, basing themselves on traditional Chinese historians' work, have agreed that the boat people are descendents of the Yüeh or a branch thereof (Eberhard 1942, 1968 ; Lo 1955, 1963 ; Ho 1965 ; and others influenced by them, such as Wiens 1954). "Yüeh" (the "Viet" of Vietnam) seems to have been a term rather loosely used in early Chinese writings to refer to the "barbarian" groups of the south coast».
  • Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew, Katharine Caroline Bushnell. Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers. — Echo Library, 2006. — P. 11. — ISBN 1-4068-0431-2.
  • C. Fred Blake. Ethnic groups and social change in a Chinese market town. — University Press of Hawaii, 1981. — P. 2. — «are therefore despised as local aborigines. Land people commonly call boat people "Tanka" ("egg folk"), which is a derogatory reference to their alleged barbarism. The aboriginal origin of boat people is alleged in imperial Chinese edicts (see chapter 2, note 6) as well as in». — ISBN 0-8248-0720-0.
  • Charles Ralph Boxer. Fidalgos in the Far East, 1550–1770: fact and fancy in the history of Macau. — M. Nijhoff, 1948. — P. 224. — «Some of these wants and strays found themselves in queer company and places in the course of their enforced sojourn in the Portuguese colonial empire. The Ming Shih's complain that the Portuguese kidnapped not only coolie or Tanka children but even those of educated persons, to their piratical lairs at Lintin and Castle Peak, is borne out by the fate of Barros' Chinese slave already».
  • Chaves, Jonathan. Singing of the source: nature and god in the poetry of the Chinese painter Wu Li. — University of Hawaii Press, 1993. — «Wu Li, like Bocarro, noted the presence in Macau both of black slaves and of non-Han Chinese such as the Tanka boat people, and in the third poem of his sequence he combines references to these two groups: Yellow sand, whitewashed houses: here the black men live; willows at the gates like sedge, still not sparse in autumn. (…) Midnight’s when the Tanka come and make their harbor here; fasting kitchens for noonday meals have plenty of fresh fish. The second half of the poem unfolds a scene of Tanka boat people bringing in fish to supply the needs of fasting Christians. (…) Yellow sand, whitewashed houses: here the black men live; willows at the gates like sedge, still not sparse in autumn. Midnight’s when the Tanka come and make their harbor here; fasting kitchens for noonday meals have plenty of fresh fish. (…) The residents Wu Li strives to reassure (in the third line of this poem) consisted — at least in 1635 when Antonio Bocarro, Chronicler-in-Chief of the State of India, wrote his detailed account of Macau (without actually having visited there) — of some 850 Portuguese families with "on the average about six slaves capable of bearing arms, amongst whom the majority and the best are negroes and such like, " as well as a like number of «native families, including Chinese Christians . . . who form the majority [of the non-Portuguese residents] and other nations, all Christians.» 146 (Bocarro may have been mistaken in declaring that all the Chinese in Macau were Christians.)». — ISBN 0-8248-1485-1.
  • Christina Miu Bing Cheng. Macau: a cultural Janus. — Hong Kong University Press, 1999. — «Her slave-like submissiveness is her only attraction to him. A-Chan thus becomes his slave/mistress, an outlet for suppressed sexual urges. The story is an archetypical tragedy of miscegenation. Just as the Tanka community despises A-Chan’s cohabitation with a foreign barbarian, Manuel’s colleagues mock his 'bad taste' ('gosto degenerado') (Senna Fernandes, 1978: 15) in having a tryst with a boat girl. (…) As such, the Tanka girl is nonchalantly reified and dehumanized as a thing (coisa). Manuel reduces human relations to mere consumption not even of her physical beauty (which has been denied in the description of A-Chan), but her 'Orientalness' of being slave-like and submissive. (…) Christina Miu Bing Cheng, p. 170: We can trace this fleeting and shallow relationship in Henrique de Senna Fernandes' short story, A-Chan, A Tancareira, (Ah Chan, the Tanka Girl) (1978). Senna Fernandes (1923-), a Macanese, had written a series of novels set against the context of Macau and some of which were made into films». — ISBN 962-209-486-4.
  • Tê-chʻao Chêng. Acculturation of the Chinese in the United States: a Philadelphia study. — University of Pennsylvania., 1948. — P. 27. — «Among the aboriginal tribes, the "Iu" (傜) tribe is the largest, then "Lai" (黎), the "Yi" (夷)or more commonly called the "Miao" (苗), and the "Tanka" (疍家). The mixture of these peoples with the "Han" people therefore caused all the cultural variations and racial complexity».
  • Bill Cranfield. All-Asia guide. — 13. — Far Eastern Economic Review, 1984. — P. 151. — «The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population — now declining — of about 50.000 boat- people, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again».
  • R. A. Donkin. Beyond price: pearls and pearl-fishing : origins to the Age of Discoveries. — American Philosophical Society, 1998. — Vol. Volume 224 of Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge. — P. 200. — «the Southern Han (tenth century), government troops were sent to Ho-p'u to fish for pearls,121 it appears that operations were normally conducted, not by Chinese, but by one or other of the aboriginal (Yüeh) groups, notably the Tan. The Tan (Tan-hu, Tan-chia, Tanka) were ancient inhabitants of the littoral of South China. According to a twelfth-century source, those of Chin prefecture ( west of Lien) belonged to three groups, "the fish-Tan, the oyster-Tan, and the wood-Tan, excelling at the gathering of fish, oysters, and timber respectively."». — ISBN 0-87169-224-4.
  • Bob Dye. Merchant prince of the Sandalwood Mountains: Afong and the Chinese in Hawaiʻi. — University of Hawaii Press, 1997. — P. 31. — «But it also increased social contact between the three largest dialect groups, and that caused trouble, Punti.... treated Hakka .... as if they were uncultured aborigines... Hakka and Hoklo battled each other...as they fought Punti... All of these groups despised the Tanka people, descendants of aborigines». — ISBN 0-8248-1772-9.
  • Wolfram Eberhard. China's minorities: yesterday and today. — Wadsworth, 1982. — P. 89. — «Chinese sources assert that they can stay under water for three days and that they are descendants of water snakes. Not much else is said about them in Chinese sources, especially nothing about their language (…) Not much else is said about them in Chinese sources, especially nothing about their language. Today, Tanka in the Canton area speak the local Chinese dialect and maintain that they are Chinese whose profession is fishery (…) Several styles of Chinese music come from Southern non-Chinese. I would be inclined to assume that the Tanka are close relatives of the Yueh. There is "Chinese blood" in them as a result of sexual contacts through prostitution: Tanka operated so-called pleasure boats around Hong Kong and Canton. As a consequence of this intermingling, they lost their own language». — ISBN 0-534-01080-6.
  • Faure D., Siu H.F. Down to Earth: The Territorial Bond in South China. — Stanford University Press, 1995. — ISBN 9780804724357.
  • Valery M. Garrett. Traditional Chinese clothing in Hong Kong and South China, 1840–1980. — Oxford University Press, 1987. — P. 2. — «The Tanka dislike the name and prefer 'Sui seung yan', which means 'people who live on the water'. Because of their different physique and darker skin, they were traditionally thought by those living on the land to be a race of sea gypsies and not Chinese at all». — ISBN 0-19-584174-3.
  • Jacques Gernet. A history of Chinese civilization. — 2. — Cambridge University Press, 1996. — P. 471. — «The Tanka were an aboriginal population of fishermen who lived permanently in their boats (hence the name ch'uan-min, 'boat people', sometimes given to them). They were famous pearl fishermen. Their piratical activities caused many difficulties to Shang K'o-hsi, the first military governor appointed to Kwangtung by the Ch'ing, and thus indirectly helped the Southern Ming resistance and attempts at secession.». — ISBN 0-521-49781-7.
  • Great Britain. Colonial Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services. Hong Kong. — Govt. Press, 1970. — P. 219. — «The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several».
  • Great Britain. Colonial Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services. Hong Kong. — Govt. Press, 1962. — P. 37. — «The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan (people of the southern sea) or 'Sui Seung Yan».
  • Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Hong Kong. Government Information Services. Hong Kong. — Govt. Press, 1960. — P. 40.
  • The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. — Grolier, 1981. — P. 474. — ISBN 0-7172-0112-0.
  • Grolier Incorporated. The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. — Grolier Incorporated, 1999. — P. 474. — «In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier.». — ISBN 0-7172-0131-7.
  • Scholastic Library Publishing. Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1. — Scholastic Library Pub., 2006. — P. 474. — ISBN 0-7172-0139-2.
  • Gregory Eliyu Guldin. Farewell to Peasant China: Rural Urbanization and Social Change in the Late Twentieth Century. — M.E. Sharpe, 1997. — С. 75. — ISBN 9780765600899.
  • Bangqing Han, Ailing Zhang, Eva Hung. The sing-song girls of Shanghai / Ailing Zhang, Eva Hung. — Columbia University Press, 2005. — P. 538. — «Prominent among the regional groups were two from Guangdong province: the Tanka girls, who lived and worked on boats, and the Cantonese girls, who worked in Cantonese brothels.». — ISBN 0-231-12268-3.
  • James Hayes. Friends & teachers: Hong Kong and its people, 1953–87. — Hong Kong University Press, 1996. — P. 23. — «Leaving aside the settled land population Hakka and Cantonese villagers, and the trickle of newcomers into the district, there were also the boat people, of whom the Tanka and Hoklo were the two principal groups. They were numerous and to be found everywhere in its waters». — ISBN 962-209-396-5.
  • Virgil K. Y. Ho. Understanding Canton: rethinking popular culture in the republican period. — Oxford University Press, 2005. — P. 256. — «A Cantonese song tells how even low-class Tanka prostitutes could be snobbish, money-oriented, and very impolite to customers. Niggardly or improperly behaved clients were always refused and scolded as ' doomed prisoners' (chien ting) or 'sick cats' ('Shui-chi chien ch'a', in Chi- hsien-hsiao-yin c.1926: 52), and sometimes even punched (Hua-ts'ung-feˆn-tieh 1934)». — ISBN 0-19-928271-4.
  • Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Journal, Volumes 18–21. — 1980. — P. 121. — «How does it come about that this pleasing mixture of American Youth camp and English public-school sports day should come to represent" the emotional high point of the year for these fifteen schools which cater for the Shui-sheung-yan (water-folk), traditionally the lowest of all Hong Kong's social strata. Organised quite separately from them.».
  • Hong Kong, Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Hong Kong annual report. — H.M.S.O., 1962. — P. 37.
  • Hong Kong: report for the year .... — Government Press, 1961. — P. 40.
  • Hong Kong: report for the year .... — Government Press, 1970. — P. 219.
  • Martin Hürlimann. Hong Kong. — Viking Press, 1962. — P. 17. — «The Tanka are among the earliest of the region's inhabitants. They call themselves 'Sui Seung Yan', signifying 'those born on the waters'; for they have been a population afloat as far back as men can remember—their craft jostle each other most closely in the fishing port».
  • Cheah Cheng Hye, Donald Wise. All-Asia guide. — 11. — Far Eastern Economic Review, 1980. — P. 135. — «The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population—now declining—of about 100000 boatpeople, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again».
  • Mike Ingham. Hong Kong: a cultural history. — Oxford University Press, 2007. — P. 2. — «In their turn the modern-day boat people of Hong Kong, the Tanka, have derived their maritime and fishing cultural traditions from this long lineage. Little is known about the Yue, but some archaeological evidence gathered from Bronze (…) of China following the Emperor Qin's conquests in the second century BC, Hong Kong, now integrated into the Donguan county of Guangdong province, started to be colonized or settled by non-indigenous peoples from further north». — ISBN 0-19-531496-4.
  • Maria Jaschok, Suzanne Miers. Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape / Maria Jaschok, Suzanne Miers. — Zed Books, 1994. — «Tanka, a marginalised boat people which could be found in the Southern provinces of China. (…) I am indebted to Dr Maria Jaschok for drawing my attention to Sun Guoqun's work on Chinese prostitution and for a reference to Tanka prostitutes who served Western clients. In this they were unlike typical prostitutes who were so unaccustomed to the appearance of western men that 'they were all afraid of them (…) He states that they had a near- monopoly of the trade in girls and women, and that: The half-caste population in Hong Kong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the offspring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuous re-absorption in the mass of Chinese residents of the Colony (1895 p. 169)». — ISBN 1-85649-126-9.
  • Kleinen J., Osseweijer M. Pirates, Ports, and Coasts in Asia: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. — Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2010. — (IIAS/ISEAS Series on Maritime Issues and Piracy in Asia). — ISBN 9789814279079.
  • William Knox. All-Asia guide / William Knox. — 8. — Far Eastern Economic Review, 1974. — P. 86. — «The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population—now declining—of about 100000 boatpeople, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again».
  • Meiqi Lee. Being Eurasian: memories across racial divides. — Hong Kong University Press, 2004. — P. 262. — «EJ Eitel, in the late 1890s, claims that the 'half-caste population in Hong Kong ' were from the earliest days of the settlement almost exclusively the offspring of liaisons between European men and women of outcaste ethnic groups such as Tanka (Europe in China, 169). Lethbridge refutes the theory saying it was based on a 'myth' propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community. Carl Smith's study in the late 1960s on the protected women seems, to some degree, support Eitel's theory. Smith says that the Tankas experienced certain restrictions within the traditional Chinese social structure. Custom precluded their intermarriage with the Cantonese and Hakka-speaking populations. The Tanka women did not have bound feet. Their opportunities for settlement on shore were limited. They were hence not as closely tied to Confucian ethics as other Chinese ethnic groups. Being a group marginal to the traditional Chinese society of the Puntis (Cantonese), they did not have the same social pressure in dealing with Europeans (CT Smith, Chung Chi Bulletin, 27). 'Living under the protection of a foreigner,' says Smith, 'could be a ladder to financial security, if not respectability, for some of the Tanka boat girls' (13 ).». — ISBN 962-209-671-9.
  • Lehner G. China in European Encyclopaedias, 1700-1850. — Brill, 2011. — (European Expansion and Indigenous Response). — ISBN 9789004201507.
  • Henry J. Lethbridge. Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. — Oxford University Press, 1978. — P. 75. — «The half-caste population in Hong Kong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day [1895], almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people».
  • A.J.S. McFadzean, D. Todd. Cooley's anaemia among the tanka of South China (англ.). Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1971).
  • William Meacham. The Archaeology of Hong Kong. — Hong Kong University Press, 2008. — P. 162. — «Other sources mention "Yao" who also lived on Lantau. Chinese sources describe several efforts to bring these folk to heel and, finally, a campaign to annihilate them... Later sources refer to the Tanka boat people as "Yao" or "barbarian," and for centuries they were shunned and not allowed to settle on land. Even as late as 1729, the Sun On county gazetteer recorded that "in Guangdong there is a tribe of Yao barbarians called the Tanka, who have boats for homes and live by fishing." These presumed remnants of the Yueh and their traditional way of life were looked down upon by the Han Chinese through the centuries». — ISBN 962-209-925-4.
  • Leo J. Moser. The Chinese mosaic: the peoples and provinces of China. — Westview Press, 1985. — P. 219. — «traditional response among the other peoples of the south China coastal region was to assert that the boat people were not Han Chinese at all, but rather a distinct minority race, the Tanka (PY: Danjia "dan people"), a people who had taken to the life on the water long ago. Often this view was embroidered with tales about how the Tanka had short legs, good only for shipboard life. Some stories alleged that they had six toes and even a tail. It was commonly asserted that they spoke their own aboriginal». — ISBN 0-86531-085-8.
  • Nan kai da xue (Tianjin, China). Jing ji yan jiu suo, Nankai University, Pa li-tai. Nankai Institute of Economics, Nankai University, Pa li-tai. Committee on Social and Economic Research. Nankai social and economic quarterly, Volume 9. — Nankai Institute of Economics, Nankai University., 1936. — P. 616.
  • National Physical Laboratory (Great Britain). Report for the year .... — H.M.S.O., 1962. — P. 37.
  • Susan Naquin, Evelyn Sakakida Rawski. Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century. — Yale University Press, 1989. — P. 169. — «The Wuyi mountains were the home of the She, remnants of an aboriginal tribe related to the Yao who practiced slash and burn agriculture. Tanka boatmen of similar origin were also found in small numbers along the coast. Both the She and the Tanka were quite assimilated into Han Chinese culture.». — ISBN 0-300-04602-2.
  • Cornelius Osgood. The Chinese: a study of a Hong Kong community, Volume 3. — University of Arizona Press, 1975. — P. 1212. — «shii leung (shu lang) shii miu (shu miao) shui fan (shui fen) shui kwa (shui kua) sui seung yan (shui shang jen) Shui Sin (Shui Hsien) shuk in (shu yen) ShunTe Sian Sin Ku (Hsien Ku) sin t'it (hsien t'ieh) Sin Yan (Hsien Jen) sing».
  • Österreichische Leo-Gesellschaft, Görres-Gesellschaft, Anthropos Institute. Anthropos, Volume 65. — Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei, 1970. — P. 249. — «Far better known are the Cantonese-speaking boat people. These are the groups known as "Tanka" (Mandarin "Tanchia") in most of the literature.».
  • Matthew Calbraith Perry, Robert Tomes. Japan and the Japanese: a narrative of the US government expedition to Japan under Commodore Perry. — 2, reprint. — ü LONDON : TRÜBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. : Trübner, 1859. — P. 78. — «of commercial activity, always enlivened by the fleet of Tanka boats which pass, conveying passengers to and fro, between the land and the Canton and Hong Kong steamers. The Chinese damsels, in gay costume, as they scnll their light craft upon the smooth and gently swelling surface of the bay, present a lively

aspect, and as they are looked upon in the distance, from the verandahs above the Praya, which command a view of the bay, have a fairy-like appearance, which a nearer approach serves, however, to change into a more substantial and coarse reality.

The Cave of Camoens, where the Portuguese poet is supposed to have written a portion of his Lusiad,».

"We arrived here on the twenty-second, and dispatched a boat to the shore immediately for letters. I received three or four of those fine large letters which are the envy of all who see them, and which are readily distinguishable by their size, and the beautiful style in which they are directed. You cannot imagine the delight with which I devoured their costents. I am glad you wrote so much of our dear pet. 0, my Dita, the longing I feel to take the dear little thing to my heart is agonizing! Yesterday I was on shore, and saw a beautiful child of about the same age as ours. I was almost crazy at the sight. Twenty months old! How she must prattle by this time! I fancy I can see her trotting about, following you around the (…) Macao had a particular interest for me as the first foothold that modern civilization obtained upon the ancient shores of 'far Cathay,' and as the birthplace of one of the finest epic poems ever written. ... On one of those calm and beautiful nights peculiar to sub-tropical climes, I stood alone upon the white sea-wall, and no sound fell upon my ears save the whirring monotone of insects in the trees above the hills, the periodical chime of bells from anchored ships, and the low, sweet cadence of the incoming tide. I thought it must have been such a night as this that inspired Camoens when he wrote,».

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